viernes, 24 de septiembre de 2010


AG - AM - Parte III

  • AGRIO'NIA (iypuiyia)
  • AGRO'NOMI (aypov6poi)
  • AGROTERAS THU'SIA (hyporipas Ma)
  • AGYRTAE (aVyopreu')
  • AIKIAS DIKE I (aucioi JUr»)
  • AITHOUSA («»Wa)
  • ALABARCHES (αλαβαρχης)
  • ALABASTRUM and ALABASTER (iX(£<i>Gaorpov, </i>oActeeurrpos)
  • ALABASTRI'TES (alabaster.)
  • ALAEA ('AAeuo)
  • ALA'RII. [ala.]
  • ALBOGALE'RUS. (apkx.)
  • ALCATHOEA (aKKoSoai)
  • ALEA
  • ALIPTAE (oAf/xTOi)
  • ALOA or HALOA ('AA»a, 'AA£a)
  • ALO'GIOU GRAPHE' (0X07(01; ypa^i)
  • ALTA'RE. [aha.]
  • ALU'TA [calckus.]
  • ALYTAE (oaatoi)
  • AMARY'NTHIA, or AMARY'SIA ("Ajiapvviia, or 'Afiapioia)
  • AMBARVA'LIA. [arvalks Fratrks.]
  • AMENTUM. [hasta.]
  • AM MA <i>(6ftfta)
  • AMXE*STIA (o^*Tftfr£a)
  • AMPHIARAIA (o^^Mooaia)
  • AMPHIDRO'MIA (o^iSp^ia)
  • AMPHIMALLUM. [tapes.]
  • AMPHIO'RCIA or AMPHOMO'SIA (ift tptopxia or apQwfWO-la)

having been previously steeped to make them perminate more readily. The crop was considered injurious to the soil, and therefore avoided by prudent husbandmen. Three modii of Cicer required four days for ploughing and sowing, two days for harrowing, one day for hoeing, one day for weeding, and three days for pulling (veUuntur triUs). (Colum. ii 10, 12 ; Plin. //. N. xviii. 12 ; Dioscorid. ii. 126 ; Theophr. viii. 1, 3, 5, 6 ; Gecpon. it 36.)
e. Cicercula, the \&&vpos of the Greeks, the Laihyrus saiivus of botanists, which Pliny seems to regard as a small variety of the Cicer^ was sown in good land either at the end of October or at the beginning of the year, in the proportion of three modii to the juger. None of the legumina proved less hurtful to the ground, but it was rarely a successful crop, for it suffered most from the dry weather and hot winds which usually prevailed when it was in flower. Four modii of Cieercula required six days'1 work—ploughing, three; harrowing, one ; weeding, one ; pulling, one. (Colum. ii. 10, 12 ; Plin. H. N. xviii. 12 ; Pallad. ii. 5, iii. 4 ; Theophr. //. P. viii. 3 ; comp. Plutarch. Quaest. Horn.)
f. Phaselus B. Phaseolus (<f>a<rfi\os ; <paurf}o\o$ ; <pcur'to\o$\ the common kidney-bean, succeeded best in rich land regularly cropped, and was sown towards the end of October in the proportion of four modii to the juger. These four modii required three or four days* work, — ploughing, one or two, according to the soil; harrowing, one ; reaping, one. The pods of the phaselus were sometimes eaten along with the seeds, according to our own custom. (Virg. Georg. i. 227 ; Colum. ii. 10, 12, xi. 2 ; Plin. //. N. xviii. 12 ; Pallad. ix. 12 ; x. 1.)
g. Pimm (iriffov ; trltros ; vltrtros), the common field pea, succeeded best in a loose soil, a warm situation, and a moist climate. It was sown immediately after the autumnal equinox, in the proportion of rather less than four modii to the juger, and cultivated exactly in the same manner as the phaselus. (Colum. ii. 10, 13 ; Plin. HN. xviii. 7, 12 ; Theophr. H. P. iii. 27, viii. 3, 5.)
Napus, the fiovyids of Dioscoridcs, is the modern Rape, the Brassica rapa of botanists. Ra/mm, the yoyyvXis of Theophrastus, is the modern Turnip, the Brassica Napus of botanists. The value of these plants was in a great measure overlooked by the earlier Roman writers, while the Greeks regarded them too much in the light of garden herbs; but Pliny enlarges upon their merits, and by the Gauls beyond the Po, who wintered their oxen upon them, their culture was deemed next in importance to that of corn and wine. They were highly useful as food for man, for cattle, and even for birds ; both the leaf and bulb were available ; being very hardy, they could be left in the ground, or would keep well if stored up, and thus one crop might be made to hold out until another came in. They required loose, well-pulverised, and highly-manured soil. Rapa succeeded best in low, moist situations, and were sown at the end of June after five ploughings {quinio sulco); napi, which were more adapted for dry sloping land, at the end of August or the beginning of September, after four ploughings (quarto sulco) ; both, however, in warm and well- watered spots might be sown in spring. A juger required four sextarii (about four imperial pints) of turnip seed and five of
rape seed, because the napus does not, like the rapum, expand into an ample bulb (won in ventrem latescit), but sends a thin root straight down (sed tertuem radicem deorsum agit). Columella, however, distinctly states that the rapuro and napus passed into each other, under the influence of a change of soil or climate, ftapina is the term for a bed or field of turnips. (Dioscorid. it 134, 136 ; Cat. v. 35 ; Colum. ii. 10 ; Plin. //. xviii. 13.)
3. Green Forage Crops (Pabula).
This term included all those crops which were cut green and employed exclusively as forage for the lower animals. The most important were: — a, Medico., b. Foetium Graecum. c Vi'cia. rf. Cicero, e. A'rmm, Ervtiia. f. Farrago, Ocy mum. g. Foeiwm. The description of the last will involve an account of the system pursued in the management of meadows.
a. Medico (mtjsuc^ sc. w6a) the modern Lucerne. The most important of all the plants cultivated for stock exclusively was Medica, so called because introduced into Greece during the Persian wars. When once properly sown, it would last for many years, might be cut repeatedly during the same season, renovated rather than exhausted the soil, was the best fattcner of lean cattle, the best restorative for those that were sick, and so nourishing that a single juger supplied sufficient food for three horses during a whole year. Hence the greatest care was bestowed upon its culture.
The spot fixed upon, which was to be neither dry nor spongy, received a first ploughing about the beginning of October, and the upturned earth was allowed to be exposed to the weather for the winter ; it was carefully ploughed a second time, at the beginning of February, when all the stones were gathered off, and the larger clods broken by the hand ; in the month of March it was ploughed for a third time and harrowed. The ground thus prepared was divided into plots or beds (areas) as in a garden, each fifty feet long and ten feet broad, so that ready access might be gained by the walks between for supplying water and extirpating the weeds. Old dung was then spread over the whole, and the sowing took place at the end of April, a cyathus (about ^ of an imperial pint) of seed being allowed for each bed of the dimensions described above. The seed was immediately covered in with wooden rakes (figneis rasteJUs), and the operations of hoeing and weeding were performed repeatedly with wooden implements. It was not cut for the first time until it had dropped some of its seed, but afterwards might be cut as tender as the farmer thought fit After each cutting it was well watered, and as Boon as the young blades began to sprout, every weed was sedulously removed. Managed in this manner it might be cut six times a year for ten (Pliny says thirty) years. It was necessary to use caution in giving it at first to cattle, since it was apt to inflate them, and make blood too rapidly, but when they were habituated to its use it might be supplied freely. It is very remarkable that this species of forage, to which so much importance was attached by the Romans, has altogether disappeared from Italy. We are assured by M. Chateauvieux that not a single plant of it is now to be seen. (Varr. i. 42 ; Colum. iu 10, 28 ; Virg. Georg. i. 215 ; Pallad. iii. 6, v. 1; Pi-JL //. .V. xviii 16 ; Dkacorid. ii 177; Theophr. //. P. vSi 7.)
6. fnaa^nvnui, variously termed ry\n, frrsmtpm ?- fHoimtpas, KfpalTii and aey4**fmt, the Trigame&a toentm Graeeum, or common Fenugreek of botanists, was called Stiiqma by country people, and succeeded best when totally neglected, care being taken in the first place not to bur; the seed drrp (tcarijuxitiame teritmr). Six or seven modii which was the allowance for a juger, required two davi for sowing and one for reaping, (tat. 35 ; Coium. ii. 10, xiT 2 ; Plin. //. AT. xviii 16, xxiv. 19 ; Dkweorid- ii 124 ; Thcophr. H. P. lit 17, viii 8.)
e. I'iria (trdpajcov, the &ucl&v of Galen), some one of the varieties of the Viria tatrea, the Vetch or Summer (or Winter) Tare of botanists. It r.u:bt be sown on dry land at different periods of \k*. v?ar, usually about the autumnal equinox when islanded tor green fodder ; in January or later, when raised for seed. (But see Plin. //* A', xviii. 15.) The quantity required in the former case was seven modxi to the juger, in the latter six. Particular car; was taken not to cast the seed when these was dew or moisture of any sort upon the surface of the ground ; the period of the day selected for the operation was therefore some hours after sunrise, and no more was scattered than could be covered up before night. It required little labour— p! joghiDs; two days, harrowing one, reaping one ; in ail, four days* work for six or seven modii. (Cat. 35 ; Varr. L 31 ; Virg. Georg. i 75 ; Colum. ii. 10. § 29, 12. | 3; Plin. H.N. xviii. 15; com p. Ov. Fast. v. 267.)
d. Cirrra, the &XP°* of Theophrastus, the Latitmu Cum of botanists, was sown after one or two plouzhings (primo cW altera ntco), in the ia«nth of March, the quantity of seed varying, according to the richness of soil, from two and a half to four modii for the juger. In southern Spain it was given to the cattle crushed (acera yfen), steeped in water, and then mixed with chaff. Twelve pounds of crvum were considered equivalent to sixteen of oceru, and sufficient for a yoke of oxen.
Cicera was cultivated for its seed also, and formed a not unpalatable food for man, differing little if at all in taste from the cicercula, but being of a darkercolour. (Colum. ii. 11, § I, 12; Pallad. iv. 6 ; Plin. H. Ar. xviii 12 ; Theophr. H. P. iv. 2.)
e. Ermm, Errilia, the iooSos of Dioscorides, are apparently varieties of the Emm Err tit, or Wild Tare of botanists. Emm succeeded best in poor dry land ; might be sown at any time between the antumnal equinox and the beginning of March, at the rate of five modii to the juger, and demanded Utile care. The above quantity required six days' labour—ploughing and sowing two, harrowing one, hoeing one, weeding one, reaping one. (Varr. i. 32 ; Vae.'Ed. iii. 100 ; Colum. ii. 10. $ 34, 11. § 11, 12/§ 3, 13. § 1, vi 3, xi 2 ; Pallad. ii. 8 ; Plin. //..V. xviii 15 ; Theophr. H. P. ix. 22 j Dioscorid. ii 131 ; comp Plaut Afottell. i. 1.)
/ Farrago, Ocjmtm, On comparing the various authorities quoted at the end of this paragraph, although they abound in contradictions, we shall be Jed to conclude —
1. That farrago was the general term employed to denote anr kind of corn cut green for fodder. Tie name was derived from far, the refuse of that pain being originally sown for this purpose (Jiir
rago e* recrtmemtit farrit praedimmt srrtter), but afterwards rye <srra/e), iau (<mnw«), and barley, were employed ; the last-mentioned being, in the estimation of Columella, the best ; and thrse grains were not always sown alone, but frequently with an admixture of the vetch and various legumina. Hence farrago is used by Juvenal to denote a confused medley of heterogeneous topics.
'-. That as farrago properly denoted corn cut green for fodder, so tVfljBMM wait the nunc given to plant* of the bean kind, when used in the a%nie manner, before they came to maturity, and formed pods. Manliui Sura give* the proportions of ten modii of beans, two of vetches, and two of eniliae to the juger ; and thU combination was said to be improved by the addition of Arena JVnjem, sown in autumn ; it was the lint crop available in the early port of the year, and hence, of the three forms orouuM, ocimumy ocymum^ we can scarcely doubt that the last is the most accurate, and that tho name was given on account of the rapidity of its) growth in spring. From the expression of I'iiuy, ** Apud antiques erat nabuli genus quod Cato OcyiHum meat," and the silence of Columella, who mentions the garden herb ocymum (basil) only, we infer that this sort of pabulum was little used after the time of Varm. The notion of Gcsner that ocymum is clover, the mtctSoov*Thaok of Callimachus, is directly at variance w ith the statements of Pliny, who mentions tn/vlimm as a distinct plant (Cat 27, 5% 64 ; Varr. i. 23, 31 ; Colum. ii. 10. | 31, 3i, xi. 3. g 29; Plin. HN xviii. 16.)
[j. fw/rtiB, Praia, So much importance was attached to stock, that many considered a good meadow as the most valuable species of land, requiring little trouble or outlay, subject to none of the casualties to which other crops were exposed, affording a sure return every year, and that twofold, in the shape of hay and of pasture. The meadows were of two kinds, the Dry Meadow (ticcamrum prxitum) and the Irrigated or Water Meadow {} >rutum ritjuum). The hay produced from a meadow whose own rich natural moisture did not require an artificial stimulus was the best Any land which declined with a gentle slope, if either naturally rich and moist, or capable of irrigation, might be laid down as a meadow, and the most approved method of procedure was the following: — The land having been thoroughly ploughed and well laboured in summer, was in autumn sown with rapa, or napi or beans, the following year with wheat, and in the third year, all tree% bushes, and rank weeds having been extirpated, with the vetch (ricia) mixed with grass seeds. The clods were broken down with rakes, the surface accurately levelled by wicker hurdles, so that the scythe of the mower (foenueca) might nowhere encounter any obstacle. The vetches were not cut until they had arrived nt maturity and begun to drop their seed ; and after they had been removed, the grass, when it had attained to a proper height, was mown and made into hay. Then the irrigation commenced, provided the soil was stiff, for in loose earth it was necessary to allow the grass roots to obtain a firm hold. For the first year no stock were permitted to graze lest their feet should poach up the soft ground, but the young blades were cut from time to time. In the second year, after the hay-making was over, if the ground was moderately dry and hard, the smaller animals were admitted, but no horses or oxen until the third. About the middle of February in each year, an abundant top-drossing of manure mixed with grass-seeds was applied to the upper part of the field, the benefit of which was extended to the lower portions by the flow either of natural rain or of artificial streams. When old meadows became mossy, the best remedy was to sprinkle ashes copiously, which in many cases killed the moss ; but when this failed, the most sure plan was to break up the land afresh, which, having lain long undisturbed, was sure to afford abundant crops.
In making hay, the grass was to be cut (foldhus mltsecari) before the stem had begun to lose its natural moisture, while the seed was not yet perfectly ripe ; and in drying, it was essential to avoid the two extremes of exposing it for too long or too short a time to the sun and air. In the former ease, the juices were sucked out, and it became little better than straw ; in the latter, it was liable to ferment, heat, and take fire. After being properly turned over with forks (furcitlis rersari) it was collected and laid in regular swathes (coartabimns in strigam), and then bound into sheaves or bundles (atque ila maniplos vinciemus). The loose stalks were next raked together (rustellis eradi) and the whole crop (foenisicia) carried home and stored in lofts, or, if this was not convenient, built up in the field into conical ricks (in metas extrui convenict). Lastly, the inequalities passed over by the mowers (quae forniseccs praeiericruni) were cut close and smooth (sidUenda prata, id est, falabut consectanda), an operation termed sidlire pratum, the gleanings thus obtained, which formed a sort of aftermath, being called foenum cordum, or sicUimcnta. (Cat 5, 8, 9, 29, 50 ; Varr. i. 7, 49 ; Colum. ii. 16—18; Pallad. ii. 2, iii. 1, iv. 2, x. 10.)
4. Crops affording Materials for textile Fabrics,
Of these, the most important were, a. Cannabis : ft. Linuw.
a. Cannatns (KdVya&r, Kavva% os) the Cannabis saliva, or Common Hemp of botanists, required rich, moist, well-watered, deeply trenched, and highly manured land. Six grains were sown in every square foot of ground during the last week in February, but the operation might be delayed for a fortnight if the weather was rainy. Columella is unable to give any details with regard to the amount of time and labour necessary for raising a crop of hemp. (Varr. i. 23 ; Colum. ii. 10, 12, 21 ; Plin. //. N. xix. 9 ; Dioscorid. iii. 165.)
ft. Linum (\liw), the Linum usitatissimum, or Common Flax of botanists, being regarded as a very exhausting crop, was altogether avoided, unless the soil happened to be peculiarly suitable, or the price which it bore in the district very inviting (nisi pretium provUat). It was sown from the beginning of October until the end of the first week in December, in the proportion of eight modii to the juger, and sometimes in February at the rate of ten modii. On account of its scourging qualities (Virg. Georg. i. 77), it was generally grown upon rich land, such being less liable to be seriously injured, but some sowed it very thick upon poor land, in order that the stalks might be as thin, and therefore the fibres as delicate as possible. (Virg. Georg. i. 212 j Colum. ii. 10, 14 j Plin. IT. N. xvii. 9, xix. 1 ; Pallad. xu 2 ; Oeopon. ii. 10 ; Dioscorid. ii. 125 ; Theophr. H. P. viii. 7.)
Succession or Rotation of Crops.
It is evident from the instructions given by Columella (ii. 4) for ploughing the best land, that a summer fallow usually preceded a com crop. For since the first ploughing was early in spring, the second in summer, and the third in autumn, it is impossible that a crop could have been raised upon the ground during any portion of the period hers indicated ; and the same author expressly states elsewhere (ii. 9), in accordance with the Virgilian precept (G. i. 71), that the land upon which wheat (far, siligo) was grown ought to repose every other year; in which case, however, manure might be dispensed with. Nor did this plan apply to com alone, for it would seem to have been the general practice to permit nearly one half of the farm to remain at rest, while the productive energies of the other moiety were called into action. It will be seen from the calculations with regard to time and labour for an arable farm containing 200 jugera (Colum. it 12), that 100 jugers only were sown in autumn, 50 with wheat, 50 with leguminous or green crops ; and if spring-sowing was resorted to, which was by no means general, 30 more, so that out of 200 jugera, at least 70, and more frequently 100, were left fallowed.
There were, indeed, exceptions to this system. Some land was so peculiarly deep and rich that it might be cropped for two or more years in succession (terra restibilis) ; but ill this case it was relieved by varying the crop, the field from which winter wheat (far) had been reaped being highly raanured and sown immediately with beans, or the ground which had borne lupines, beans, vetches, or any renovating crop, was allowed to lie fallow during winter and then sown with spring-wheat (far) (Virg. Georg. i. 73 ; comp. Plin. H. iV. xviii. 2l), while a third rotation, still more favourable, was to take two leguminous or renovating crops after one exhausting or com crop. In Campania, the extraordinary fertility of the soil allowed them to tax its energies much more severely, for there it was common to sow barley, millet, turnips (rapa), and then barley or wheat again, the land receiving manure before the millet and turnips, but never remaining vacant ; while that peculiarly favoured district near Naples, called the Campi Laborini, or Terras Laboriae, now the Terra di Lavoro, yielded an uninterrupted series of corn crops, two of far, and one of millet, without a moment of repose (seritur toto anno, panico seme/, bisfarre). (Cat 35 ; Varr. i. 44 j Virg. Georg. i. 71, &c. j Colum. ii. 9, 10, 12 ; Plin. H.N. xviii. 21, 23.)
It will be proper, before bringing this part of the subject to a close, to explain a word which may occasion embarrassment in consequence of its signification being variously modified by the Roman agricultural writers. This is the adjective novalis, which frequently appears as a substantive, and in all the three genders, according as ager, terra, or solum is understood.
1. The original meaning of novalis or novate, looking to its etymology, must have been, land newly reclaimed from a state of nature ; and in this sense it is used by Pliny (H.N. xvii. 5), Talis (sc. odor) fere est in novations caesa vetere sylva. (Comp. Callistr. in Pand. xlvii. 21. 3.)
2. Varro, in his treatise De Lingua Latina (v. 39 ; comp. vi. 59, ed. Mtiller), places novalis aysrt
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Pliny (//. JV. xriii. 19), Xorale ett omod aHerms omnia merit nr.
3. Varro, in hit Treatise Z>e Ae Rumtica (i. 29), deSnei .skju to mean a field which hat been ploughed and nn ; mm, a field ploughed but act yet town ; aora/u mbi totem /wat tMteattawi at. enda oratione reaoceatr, ambignous words which may be interpreted to denote a field which hat borne a crop, bnt which hat not been ploughed for t second crop ; ia which case it will be equiTalent to a fuliuv JiekL
4- Columella, in one paatage (vi. praef. § 1), employs aocmZe to/aw* for new or virgin land untouched by the plough ; for in contrasting the tastes of the agriculturist and the grazier, be reBBrki that the former delighta owam imariwu tmbaeto et pun to/o, the latter novali grammoeoque ; and Yam (ii. praet § 4) in like manner placet totalis at pattnre land, in opposition to tripes, at corn land,— boa doanitut comao. fit ast commodimt notcotur fnmestuin in mroete et jxibulum in noculi.
5. Columella, in another passage, placet euUa aoecjtii, land under tillage in a general tense, in opposition to rmdit agmr^ land in a state of natore ; and thns we mutt understand the mate tarn culta twain in Virgil's first Eclogue (v. 71), and fauns aoroZex, the cultivated fields from which a crop has been reaped,—a phrase which forms the connecting link between this meaning and that noticed above under 3. (Cosrp. Pallad. i. 6, ii. 10.)
The second great department of our subject it Pattio, a Ret Pattaricia, s. Seientia Pattoralit, these terms being all alike understood to denote the art of providing and feeding stock to at to yield the most ample profitBut Pattio must he considered under the twofold forms of
a, Pattio Agretiit s. Ret Pecuaria, and A Pattio VHTatica.
The former comprehending the management of cattle, sheep, horses. Ate; die latter of poultry, game, fish, bees, and some other animals to be noticed hereafter.
Contains three heads:
I. Minora Pecndet, including, ]. Sheep ; 2. Goats ; 3. Swine.
IL Majorca Pecndet, including, 1. Kine ; 2. i; 3. Atses ; 4. Mulct. Varro indeed, for apparently except to preserve a sort of symmetry, places mnles in the third division, but as tbey evidently belong to the tame data at horses and asses, we have to this extent departed from his arrangement.
111. Animals provided not for the profit which they yield directly in the market, but necessary for the proper maintenance of the foregoing: these are—
1. Doge (canes) ; 2. Feeders (pastoret). Amu, ia each of these nine subdivisions (with the exception of mules who do not breed) attentim matt be directed to nine different circummcet, of which four are to be considered in the
/5Z of nock <* four -the
feeding of stock (ia pecore patrendo), while the ninth, of a more general character, relates to num. ber {tie nutnero).
The four circuinitancet which demand attention in purchasing stock are, a. The age of the animal (octet). 6. His points {tvomUio format) by which we determine whether he is good of his kind, e. Hit breeding (quo sir amino), by which we determine whether he it of a good kind. d. The legal forms (dejure in porondo) essentia) to render a tale valid, and the warranty which the buyer may demand (quemadmodum astjaajtsj ptemdem emi oporteot ciriti jure).
The four circamttancet to be considered after a breeding stock hat been acquired are, e. The mode of feeding {pattio) in answer to the quettiont traca, and trirt what (ia qma repiome, et et owu). f. The impregnation of the the period of gestation, and her treatment while pregnant, all of which are embodied in the word foetura, p. The rearing of the young (*«• trieatmt). k. The preservation of their health, and treatment when diseased (de tanUatt).
i. The ninth and last inquiry (alt mmmtr ■) relates to the number of flocks and herds which can be maintained with advantage in a given space, the number of individuals which it is expedient to combine into one flock or herd, and the proportions to be observed with regard to the sex and age of the members of each flock and herd.
In following the divisions and topics indicated above, we omit the discussions on the disease! of stock and their remedies, which abound in the agricultural writers, and which form the subject of an elaborate treatise (Jifn/o-medicima a De Arte Veterinaria), bearing the name of Veartiut, which is probably a translation or compilation from the works of the Greek Imrforpw, or veterinary turexecuted at a late period.
I. Minokss PacfDsa.
1. Sheep (pecut oviflmm s. oriarium) were divided into two classes with reference to their wool
(1.) Pecut nirtum, whose fleeces were not protected artificially.
(2.) Pecut Tarentinum a Pecut Graecum a Ores ptllitae a Ores tectae, whose fleeces were protected from all external injury by tkin jackets. Their wool being thut rendered finer, and being more easily scoured and dyed, brought a higher price than any other.
Sheep were likewise divided into two classes according as they were home-fed or reared in extensive and distant pastures ; we tint consider them under this point of view.
Home-fed sheep (greats villaHci) were allowed to pasture in the fields around the farm during a portion of the year, wherever the nature of the country and the system of cultivation pursued rendered this practicable, or, more frequently, were kept constantly confined in sheds (stabula—> eepta ovi/ia), built in warm and theltered situations, with hard floors sloping outwards to prevent the accumulation of moisture, which was regarded as particularly injurious to both the feet and the fleece. They were fed upon cytitus, lucerne, barley, and leguminous seeds, or when such rich and succulent food could not be obtained, on hay, bran, chaff, grape husks, and dry leaves, especially those of the elm, oak, and fig, being at all tiroes plentifully supplied with salt. They were littered with leaves and twigs, which were frequently changed, and the pens were kept carefully clean.
The more numerous flocks which were reared in extensive pastures (qui in saltibus pa$cuntur) usually passed the winter in the low plains upon the coast, and were driven by regular drift roads (caUes publicae) in summer to the mountains of Central Italy, just as in modern times vast droves pass every autumn from the Abruzzi to seek the more genial climate of Puglia or the Maremma. Those who were employed to watch them (opiliones) being often at a great distance from home were furnished with beasts of burden for transporting the materials required in the construction of folds and huts, at their halting places, and all the stores necessary for themselves and their charge. The sheep were usually collected every night to secure them against robbers and beasts of prey ; in summer they fed in the morning and evening, and reposed during the noontide heat in sheltered spots, while in winter they were not allowed to go out until the frost was off the ground. The flocks were often very numerous, containing sometimes 15,000 head, one shepherd (opilio) being allowed to every five or six score.
The breeds most prized by the early Romans were the Calabrian, the Apulian, which were short woolled (breves villa), the Milesian, and, above all, the Tarentine ; but in the time of Columella those of Cisalpine Gaul from the vicinity of Altinum (Mart xiv. 153), and those from the Carapi Macri round Parma and Mutina were especially esteemed. The system of crossing was by no means unknown ; for M. Columella, the uncle of the nuthor, produced an excellent variety by crossing the (cetac oves of Cadiz with some wild rams from Africa, and again crossing their progeny with the Taren tines. In purchasing stock attention was always paid to the localities where they were to be maintained ; thus sheep of large size ( procerae oves) were naturally deemed bust fitted for rich plains, stout compact animals (qiuviratae) for light hilly soils, and the smaller kinds (exiguae) for mountainous regions, just as in this country the Leicesters arc kept with greatest advantage in the low-lying luxuriant pastures of Lincolnshire, Cheviots in the grass hills from which they derive their name, and the black-faced on the lofty mountains of Wales and Scotland. As to colour, pure white was most sought after"; but certain natural tints, such as the dark grey (pullus), which distinguished the flocks of Pollentia in Liguria (fuscique ferax Pollentia villi, Silius, viii. 599), the yellowish brown (fuscus) in those of Corduba (so often celebrated by Martial, v. 37, viii. 2. 8, ix. 62, xiv. 188 ; comp. Juv. xii. 40), and the red brown (rul/er) in some of the Asiatic varieties, were highly prized.
The points characteristic of a good animal and the warranty usually required of the seller will be found fully detailed in Varro (ii. 2) and Columella (vii. 2, 3).
Those which were smooth and bare under the belly (ventre glabro), anciently called apicae, were always rejected, and particular care was taken that the fleece of the ram should be perfectly pure, or at least uniform in colour, his tongue also being examined in order to ascertain that it was not black or spotted, since such defects would have
been transmitted to his progeny. (Virg. Georg. in. 387; Colum. vii. 3.)
Ewes were not considered fit for breeding until they were two years old, and they continued to produce until they had reached the age of seven : rams (arietes) were believed to be in vigour from three years old until eight. The most favourable period for impregnation in the case of ewes that had not previously brought forth, was the latter end of April, about the Palilia (21st April); for others, from the setting of Arcturus (13th May) to the setting of the Eagle (23d July) ; and, since the period of gestation was about 150 days, the earliest lambs (agni, apnae) would be yeaned in September, the latest about the middle of December, these being, as was remarked by Celsus, the only animals produced with advantage in midwinter. Ewes when about to lamb (inrientes) were placed apart, constantly watched, and assisted in parturition. As soon as they had brought forth, the first milk which was of a thick consistence, and called colostra, was carefully withdrawn, being considered injurious in all animals, and productive of a disease named colostratio. The lambs were now tended with the greatest solicitude, were generally kept in the house near a fire for some days, were not allowed to go forth to pasture for a considerable time, but were partially reared by the hand on the most tender and nourishing food, being finally weaned at the age of four months. Those lambs which were carried in the womb longer than the regular time were termed chordi ; those born late in the season, serotini ; those which, in consequence of their mothers being unable to supply milk, were suckled by others, suttrumi. Castration was not performed upon such as were intended for wethers (verveces) until five months old. The males set apart to supply the deficiencies in the breeding flock (quos anetes submitle re volurit) were selected from the progeny of such ewes as usually gave birth to twins, those which were polled (muttii) being preferred on the whole to those with horns (comutt).
The managementof oresjtellitae differedfrom that of the ordinary greges villatici merely in the amount of care with which they were tended. They were furnished with an ample supply of the most nutritious food, each individual receiving daily in winter three sextarii (pints) of barley or of beans crushed in their pods (fresae cum suis valvttlis fabae\ in addition to hay, lucerne, dry or green cytisus, and other fodder. Their stalls were usually paved with stone, and kept scrupulously clean ; they seldom left the house, and, when allowed to pasture, it was looked upon as essential that the ground should be free from bushes and briars of every description which might tear their fleece or its covering. The jackets were frequently taken off to cool the animals, the wool was combed out at least thrice a year, and well washed and annointed with oil and wine. The wethers were killed at two years old, their skin being then in perfection.
Sheep-shearing (tonsttra) commenced in warm districts in April ; but in cold situations was deferred until the solstice. A fine day was chosen, and the operation was performed before the sun had attained to its full power, in order that the sheep might not be hot and the wool not moist The most careful placed a rug under the animal (tegetiatlis sulijcctis oves tondere solent) that no portion of the clip
kht he lost or damaged (me qmi iloexri im/rr?amt).
The wool, when fresh shorn and still impi"egnated with the sweat of the animal, was called lama the fleeces when rolled op were termed Oves kirtae^ when shorn, with wine and oil, to whkb white wax and bog*s lard were occasionallv added ; while the jackets of the ores pelHtoe were anointed with the same mixture, and then replaced on the nnimaU Instead of this, rase rubbed in a wash composed of equal parts of boiled lupine juice, lees of old wine, and am urea. Asy wound inflicted during the process was dressed with tar (ptr liqvida.}. On the fourth day they were bathed, if possible, in the sea ; if not, in rainwater mixed with salt. In Spain and some other places it was customary to shear the sheep twice a T?ar, under the belief that the additional labour was more than compensated by the increased quantity of wool. The ancient practice of plucking the wool instead of shearing it, still lingered in certain districts eren when Pliny wrote. (Varr. it 1> | 5, 16,20, ii. 2 ; Colum. i." Praef. § 26, vii. 2, 3, 4, xl 2. § 14 ; Plm. H. AT. viii. 47, 48 ; Pallad. ii. 16, ▼. 7, Tl 8, viL 6, TiiL 4, xii_ 13.)
2. Goats (pecsts caprinum) were divided into two classes, the genus nxuiilum et raripilum, the polled and thin haired, and the genus eomutum ct se&sam, the homed and shaggy; but there does not appear to hare been any difference in the mode of rearing them, nor indeed do they seem to have been kept distinct ; hut it was considered advisable that the old he-goat, the dux gregis* should be etwri/ss, because he was then less troublesome and pugnacious.
The points characteristic of a good animal will be found enumerated in Varro (ii. 3, § 2—5) and in Columella (vii. 6). The most high bred had always two long naps of skin (rerrvcuiae, faeiniue) def-endin^ from the throat. One peculiarity connected with sales was that they were never warranted in cood health, for they were believed to be always more or less labouring under fever.
The management of goats was in most respects the same as that of sheep, except that, although ; of frost and cold, they throve better in craggy ground or among copse wood, where they broased with great eagerness on the yoking twigs, than in open grassy plains. Both from their wandering nature and their liability to on tract disease when crowded in pens, not more than fifty were kept together in a flock under the charge of the same goatherd (caprarius), the proportion of one male (ew/>er, kircus) to about fifteen fr-males {eaprae, eapdlae) being commonly observed.
When in stalls (caprHia), the sloping floor was usually formed out of the native rock or paved with smooth stones, fnr no litter was placed beneath their feet. The houses were swept out daily; and it was deemed essential to their health that no moisture or dirt of any kind should be allowed to accumulate. The she-goat was capable of breeding from one year old until eight ; but the prcgenr of a mother under three years old were not worth keeping permanently, but sold off. The best time for impregnation was the end of autumn; for the period of gestation being five months the lids (iJvJf) were thus born m spring If the dam > L\ vtrwV she ffenerally produced two or TM i> f°°f which were weaned at the
eren three at a. birtn, WUi
end of three months, and then transferred at ones to the flock (ndtmittuntur <■/ in pnge iuetpiumt c*«r).
The hair (p*li) of gi«ts was »horn or plucked {crtpros eellere is the technical phrase) out regularly, and used in the manufacture of coarse stuffs (usmm im castrormm et misrris relamina mantis,pilot ministrunt ael usmm moutiemm et i memta). The cloths woven from 1 wen termed 0/*r»o, because the goats in the southern and central provinces of Asia Minor, like the modern Angora species, were remarkable for the length of their hair. (/• VUieia eir<ynpui Series villo Omsili restimntmr, are the words of Pliny, who here alludes to the frosts from theCinvps in Libya, the ** Cinyphii hirri ** of VirgiL) (Colum. i Praef | 26, rii. 6 ; Plin. H. ,V. viii. 50 ; Pallad. xii. 13 ; Varr. ii. 3, ii. 1. §5, 28.)
3. Swine (paws ruillum) were divided into two classes, the sues demsae^ usually black in thickly covered with bristles ; and the M generally white, and comparatively smooth ; but there seems to have been little difference in the management of the two breeds, except that the former was the more hardy.
The points characteristic of a good animal, and the warranty usually required by the purchaser, will be found in Varro (ii. 4), Columella (vii. 9), and Pal Lidi us (UL 26).
During a great portion of the year, whrrevrr it was practicable, they were driven out to feed early in the morning in woods where acorns, beechmast, wild fruits, and lierriei abounded ; and in the middle of the day they reposed, if possible, in swampy ground, where they had not only water but mud also wherein to wallow ; In the cool of the evening they fed again, were taught to assemble when the swineherd (mhuJems) sounded his horn, and were then driven home to the farm. In winter they were not allowed to go forth when frost was hard up-m the ground. When kept in the bouse, their chief food was acorns, or when the supply "f these failed, beans, barley, and other kinds of grain and pulse. The number in each herd varied fmm 100 to 150, or even more, according to circumstances and the means of the proprietor, and tho proportion of one boar to ten sows was usually obsrved.
The sows were not considered fit for breeding until upwards of a year old, and continued prolific to the age of seven ; tiorirs (rv*nr») were m full vigour from one year old till four; the best timo for impregnation was from the middle of February up to the vemal equinox, tho period of gestation was four month*, and the pigs being weaned at the end of two, a double farrow might be procured in a year.
Each breeding sow (frrnfa) brought np her pigs (porcuS) porca, porctllus) in a separate stye (Aoro), constructed in such a manner that the superintendant (cks/os, porculaior) might easily see into tho interior and thus be prepared to relieve the progeny, which were in constant danger of being crushed by the weight of the mother who was supposed to bring forth as many young as the had teats, and was capable of suckling eight at first, but when they increased in size it was deemed advisable to withdraw one half of that number. Sucking pigs (lactenies) when ten dayB old wore accounted pure for sacrifice, and hence were anciently termed sacres; after the suckling time (nutricatus, porctilatia)n which lasted two months, was over, they were deuomi* nated delict, and sometimes nefrendcs, because not yet able to crunch hard food. The males not reserved for breeding were castrated when from six to twelve months old, and were then termed mnjales. (Varr. ii. 4 ; Colum. vii. 9, Praet i, § 26 ; Plin. //. N. viiL 51 ; Pallad. iv. 26.)
II. Majorks Pecudks. 1. Kine (peats bubulum, anncntum bubulum) were divided into classes, according as they were kept at home and employed in the labours of the farm (boves domiti), or pastured in large herds (armenta).
Botes rfomi/i, wherever the nature of the soil and the mode of culture pursued permitted, were allowed to pasture; since growing grass (viride pabulum) was considered the most suitable of all food ; when this could not be supplied, it became necessary to stall-feed them (alere ad praesepia) ; but they were allowed to stand in the open air during the hot weather, while in winter they were kept in spacious byres {stabula^ consepia) built with a southerly aspect so as to be sheltered from cold winds, the floors being hard and sloping to prevent moisture from being absorbed, and to allow it to run off freely, while to promote the warmth and comfort of the animals they were bedded with abundance of litter (atmmentum pecori et bub us diligenter rubsternatur, Cat 5.), usually straw, or leaves, such as those of the ilex, which were supposed to yield little nourishment. Their staple food from the middle of April until the middle of June was vetches, lucerne, clover, and other fodder cut green ; from the middle of June to the beginning of November the leaves of trees, those of the elm, the oak, and the poplar being regarded as the best; from the beginning of November until April meadow hay (Ji>enum pratense\ and, where hay could not be procured, chatV, grape husks, acorns, and dry leaves were substituted mixed with barley, or with some of the leguminous seeds, such as beans, lupines, or chick-peas previously steeped in water (maccraiae)y or crushed (frcsac). When an ox was fed upon hay, from 30 to 40 pounds weight (Roman pound = 113 oz. avoird.) was an ample allowance, except during the months of November and December, that is, during the ploughing and sowing season, when they received from the feeder (pabulatorius) as much food of the most nutritious kind as they could consume. Lumps of salt placed near the consepta proved very attractive to the animals and conduced to their health.
Large herds were pastured chiefly in woods where there was abundance of grass, leaves, and tender twigs, shifting to the coast in winter and to the cool shady hills in summer, under the charge of herdsmen (armentarii), a class altogether distinct from the Lubulci, or hinds, who worked and tended the boves domestici. The common number in a herd was from 100 to 120, the animals were carefully inspected every year, and the least promising (rejiculae) weeded out. The proportion of two bulls, a yearling and a two-year old, to 60 or 70 cows was usually observed, but Columella doubles the number of males. The Umbrian oxen, especially those on the Clitumnus, were the largest and finest in Italy ; those of Etruria, Latium, and Gaul were smaller, but strongly made and well adapted for labour; those of Thrace were valued for sacrificial purposes in consequence of being for the most part pure white; but the cattle of Epirus, the most im
portant pastoral district of the Roman world, were superior to all others.
The points characteristic of a good animal, and the warranty usually demanded by the buyer, will be found fully detailed in Varro (ii. 5), in Columella, who here copies the description of the Carthaginian Mago (vi. 1, 20, 21), and in Palladium (iv. 11,12).
Cows (vacate) were not fit for breeding until they were upwards of two years old, and they continued to produce until they had reached the age often. Considerable variation is to be found in the agricultural writers as to the age at which the bulls arrived at full vigour, Varro considering that they might be employed when a year old, Columella and Pliny recommending that they should be kept until four. The former, however, is the precept of the practical man, and is consonant with modem experience. The time of gestation being nearly ten (lunar) months, the most favourable period for impregnation was from the middle of June to the end of July, for thus the calves (vituli) would be born when spring was well advanced (maturo vcre). When parturition was approaching, the pregnant cow (korda rami) was carefully watched, fed richly, and protected from the assaults of the gad-fly and other tormenting assailants ; the calf for some time after its birth was allowed to suck freely, but as it increased in strength was tempted with green food, in order that it might in some degree relieve the mother, and after six months had elapsed, was fed regularly with wheat bran, barley meal, or tender grass, and gradually weaned entirely. Castration was performed at the age of two years. The vituli intended for labour were to be handled (tractari) from an early age to render them tame, but were not to be broken in to work (domari) before their third, nor later than their fifth year. The method of breaking (domitura) those taken wild from the herd is fully described by Columella (vi. 2), and Palladius fixes the end of March as the time most appropriate for commencing the operation. The members of a herd, according to age and sex, were termed, Vituius, Vittda; Juvencus, Juvenca ; Bos novellus, Buculus; Bos veto/us, Taurus, Vacca ; a barren cow was named Tuura. (Cat. 5, 30 ; Varr. ii. 1, 5 j Colum. vi. 1—3, 20— 24 ; Plin. //. N. viii. 45 ; Pallad. iv. 11,12, vL 7, viii. 4.)
2. Horses (pecus equinum s. cquitiuyn, armcnium equinum) arc divided by Columella into Gaurosi, blood horses; Afulares, horses adapted for breeding mules ; Vulgares, ordinary horses.
The points of a horse, the method of ascertaining his age up to seven years old, and the warranty usually given by the seller, are detailed in Varro (ii. 7. § 4, 5, 6 ) in Columella (vi. 29), and in Palladius (iv. 13).
Horses cither pastured in grass fields or were fed in the stable upon dry hay (is statmlis ac prarsenioiu), to which barley was added when the animal was required to undergo any extraordinary fatigue. Brood mares were frequently krpt in large troops which shifted, like sheep and oxen, from the mountains to the coast, according to the season ; two mounted men being attached to each herd of fifty. The mare (eona) was considered fit for breeding at two years old, and continued prolific up to the age of ten ; the stallion (admissariw>) remained in vigour from three years old untU treaty, bat when young was limited to twelve or fifteen female*. The period of gestation being i and ten day** the best time for a from the vernal equinox to the r solstice, since parturition would then take place daring the most favourable season. High bred mares were not allowed to produce more than once in two Tears. Ten days after birth the f«eJ [jnulus *7*aw, etpadeus) was permitted to accoropaay ha dam to pasture ; at the ase of fire months, it was customary to begin feeding; them with barley meal and bran, and when a year old, with plain BDsroond barley ; bat the best colts were allowed tocootiiroe sucking until they had completed two years, sad at three years they were broken in for the toil to which they were destined, whether for nor..- {ad firwram), for draught (ad rnedam), for carrying burthens (ad reefsu-am), or for military service {ad rpkrppivm)^ but they were not regularly worked until four off.
Race and war horses were not castrated ; but the operation was frequently performed on those destined far the road, from the conviction that the gliding (raafertss), while less hold and spirited was more safe and tractable (»» vris habere ma/ant flood**).
It ts to be observed that horses were, and indeed are, very little used for agricultural purposes Europe, the ordinary toils exclusively by oxen, and by any means objects of to the farmer as among our
that Varro, Columella, and ' other writers, repeat the absurd story cm by the poetry of Virgil, that mares in some districts of Spain became pregnant by the influence of a particular wind, adding that the colts conceived in this manner did not live beyond the az* of three years. (Varr. i PraeC § 26, it 1. § 18, 7. 5 7 ; Colum. ri 27, 29 ; Plin. //. N. viii. 42 ; PaUad. iv. 13.)
3. Attet (osusas, anna) were divided into two classes, the Genus mansuetum, or common domestic aoadruped (aswras, osetftu), and the Genua/erumy the wild ass (onaoer, onoorss), which was common in Phrygia and Lycaonia, was easily tamed and made an excellent cross.
The most celebrated breeds were those of Arcadia and of Reate. The latter was so highly esteemed in the time of Varro, that a single individual of this stock had been known to fetch sixty thousand sesterces (about 5001. sterling), and a team of four, as much as four hundred thousand (upwards of 33002. sterling). Such animals were of course delicately nurtured, being fed chiefly upon for and barley bran (far/urea ordeocei). The inferior description of asses (minor asvtius) were valued by farmers because they were very hardy, not subject to disease, capable. of enduring much toil, required little food and that of the coarsest kind, such as the leaves and twigs of thorny shrubs, and might be made serviceable in various ways, as in carrying burden* (oseJli dossuoru), turning corn mills and even in p/oughing, where the soil was not stiff. The time of impregnation, the period of natation, Mod the management of the foals (jmUi\ were the owe a* in bones They were seldom kept in sriScient number. u> form a herd (Varr ...
ftjbd. ir. U,)
4. Mules, Mmlu$ and .\fula were the general terms for the hybrid between s horse snd an ass, but in practice a distinction was drawn between Muli and Htnni, llimni sere the progeny of a stallion and a she-ass, Mmli of a male ass and a mare. The latter were larger in proportion, and more esteemed than the former. A cross sometimes was formed between the mare and the as a matter of curiosity.
Uncommon care was taken by in the selection of the parents. A boned mare, powerful rather than swift, was ally chosen. The male asses at their birth removed from their mother, suckled by mares, reared upon the most nourishing food (hay and barley), and attained to fall vigour when three years old. A good admissarius from Arcadia or Reate was worth from thirty to forty thousand sesterces (250/. to 330V. sterling). The period of gestation was observed to be a little longer than in the case of the pure horse or ass, extending to thirteen lunar months ; in all other
management, habits, and
respects their of sale wen the
The great use of mules was in drawing travelling carriages (kisee enim Limit eomjmmctiM omnia rekicula in est* dmemmtur); they were also employed, like asses, in carrying burdens upon pack saddles
(ditellae)* and in ploughing light land. The finer kinds, when kept in herds, were driven in summer from the rich plains of Ilosea on the V el in us to the Montes Giirgures. (Varr. ii. 1. § 16, ii. 8 ; Col am, vi. 36, 37 ; Plin. //. M viiL 44 ; PalUd. ir. 14.)
1. Dogs (cases) were divided into three classes: a. Canes ViUatici, watch-dogs, whose office was to guard farm-houses against the aggressions of thievrs.
b. Cane* Pastorates s. Canes Peemarh\ to protect the flocks and herds from robbers and wild beasts. Kach opilio was generally attended by two of these, equipped with spiked collars (meUum\ to serve as a defence in their encounters with wolves and other adversaries.
e. Canes Venatiei. Sporting dogs.
Varro and Columella describe minutely tho points of the first two classes, with which alone the former was concerned, and these seem to be identical with the animals employed for the same purpose at the present day in the Abruzzi. They were fed upon barley meal and whey, or in places where no cheese was made, on wheaten bread moistened with the warm liquor in which beans had been boiled. (Varr. iL 9 ; Colum. vii. 12.)
2. Feeders (pasture*).
The flocks and herds which fed in the immediate neighbourhood of the farms were usually tended by old men, boys, or even women ; but those which were driven to distant and mountainous pastures were placed under the care of persons in the vigour of life, who always went well armed and were accompanied by beasts of burden (jumenta dossuaria), carrying all the apparatus and stores required during a protracted absence ; the whole body of men and animals being under the command of an experienced and trustworthy individual, styled Magister Pecori*t who kept all the accounts and possessed a competent knowledge of the veterinary art
We may conclude this part of the subject with a few words upon the management of dairy prov
duce, which was treated as a distinct science (Tvfxnroita) by the Greeks, who wrote many treatises upon the topic
Cheese-making commenced in May, and the method followed by the Romans was substantially the same as that now practised. The milk unskimmed was used as fresh as possible, was slightly warmed, the rennet (coagtdum) was then added ; as soon as the curd formed, it was transferred to baskets (jiscellae, calathi) or wooden chesets (format) perforated with holes, in order that the whey (serum) might drain off quickly, and was pressed down by weights to hasten the process. The mass was then taken out of the frame, sprinkled with salt, and placed upon a wicker crate or wooden board in a cool dark place ; when partially dried, it was again pressed more powerfully than before, again salted and again shelved,—operations which were repeated for Bcverai days until it had required a proper consistency. It might be flavoured with thyme, with pine cones, or any other ingredient, by mixing the condiments with the warm milk.
The rennet or coagulum was usually obtained from the stomach of the hare, kid, or lamb (coagulum leporinum, hoedinum, aaninum\ the two former being preferred to the third, while some persons employed for the same purpose the milky juice expressed from a fig-tree branch, vinegar, and a variety of other substances.
The cheeses from cows'1 milk (easei bubuli) were believed to contain more nourishment, but to be more indigestible than those from ewes' milk (rase* oviUi) ; the least nourishing and most digestible were those from goats' milk (casei caprini), the new and moist cheeses in each case being more nourishing (mains alibiles), and less heavy (hi corpore turn resides), than those which were old and dry.
Cutter is mentioned by Varro (ii. 2. § 16), but seems to have been scarcely used as an article of fund (Vair. ii. 1. § 28. 11 ; Colum. vii. 8 ; Plin. //. M xi. 96, xxiv. 93, xxv. 39, xxviii. 34 ; Pallad, vl 9).
ViUaticae Pastiones, from which many persons towards the close of the republic and under the empire derived large revenues, were separated into two departments, according to the names given to the buildings or enclosures adapted to the different animals: —
I. Aviaria s. Ornit hones.
II. Vivaria,
I. Aviaria s. Ornithones, in the most extended acceptation of the terra, signified receptacles for birds of every description, whether wild or tame, terrestrial or amphibious, but it is frequently and conveniently employed in a more limited sense to denote the structures formed for birds caught in their wild Btate by the fowler (auceps), from whom they were purchased, and then shut up and sold at a profit after they became fat.
In this way we may distinguish between, a. Cohort in piano, 6. Columbarium, c. OrnWion, of which the first two only were known to the earlier Romans.
a. Cohors in piano, was the poultry-yard including the houses and courts destined for those domestic fowls which were bred and fed on the farm, and which were not able or not permitted to fly abroad. Of these the chief were, 1. Barn
door fowls or chickens (aaUinae). 2. Guinea fowls (aallinae Numidicae s. Africanae). 3. Pheasants (phasiani). 4. Peacocks (pavones). 5. Geese (anseres). 6. Ducks (anutes). 7, Teal (?) (qucrquedulae).
b. Columbarium, the dove-cote,
c. The Ornithon proper, the inmates of which, were chiefly, I. Thrushes and blackbirds (turdi, inerulae), especially the former. 2. Quails (ooturnioes). 3. Turtledoves (tortures). 4. Ortolans (?) (mdiariae), all of which arc in Italy birds of passage arriving in great flocks at particular seasons.
II. In like manner the term Vivaria, which may be employed to denote all places contrived for the reception of animals used for food or which supplied articles of food and did not fall under the denomination of pecudes or aves, must be separated into those designed for the reception of land animals, and those fur fishes.
o. Lepomria, Apiaria, Coclearia, Gliraria, and 0. Piscinae,
a. Leporaria. The animals kept in lcporaria were chiefly, 1. Hares and rabbits (leportx).
2. Various species of deer (cervi, capreae, oryt/es).
3. Wild boars (aj>ri), and under the same category rank, 4. Bees (apes). 5. Snails (coefdeae)* 6. Dormice (glires).
0. Piscituie or fish-ponds, divided into —
1. Piscinae aquae dulcis, fresh-water ponds ; and
2. Piscinae aquae sulsac, salt-water ponds.
We commence then with a description of the inhabitants of the Cohort in piano and their dwelling.
I. Aviaria.
I. a. QAon in piano.
In the science of rearing poultry (Ratio Cohort talis, 6pvt6oTp6<pta), three precepts were of general application. The birds were to be kept scrupulously clean, were to be abundantly supplied with fresh air and pure water, and were to be protected from the attacks of weasels, hawks, and other vermin. The two former objects were attained by the choice of a suitable situation, and by incessant attention upon the part of the superintendents (curatores? custodes) ; the latter was effected by overlaying the walls of the houses and courts, both inside and out, with coats of smooth hard plaster or stucco, and by covering over the open spaces with large nets.
Again, the attention of those who desired to rear poultry with profit was chiefly occupied by five considerations: 1. The choice of a good breeding stock (depenere). 2. The impregnation of the hens (de foetura). 3. The management of the eggs during incubation (de ovis). 4. The rearing of the pullets (de pidlis). 5. Fattening them for the market (de fartura), this last process being, however, frequently conducted not by the farmer (rusticus), but by persons who made it their sole occupation (fartorcs).
1, 2. Chickens (aattmm). Of the different species of domestic fowls, the most important were gxdlinae, which were divided into three classes : — a. Gaiiinae ViUaticae s. Cohort ales, the common chicken, b. Gaiiinae Africanae s. Numidicae, the same probably with the p.tXtccypib'is of the Greeks, the distinctions pointed out by Columella scarcely amounting to a specific difference ; and c. Gaiiinae Rusticae. The last were found in great abundance in the Insula Gallinaria, but it is so difficult to
from the descriptions transmitted to us I they really were, that we know not whether we ought to regard them aa pheasants, aa redlegged partridge*, aa wood-grouse, or aa tome species of game different from any of these. The Afrxeamae^ always scarce and dear, were treated almost exactly in the same manner as peacocks, i of importance to the farmer; the x>ken of except aa objects of curiosity, and ColurseUa declares that they would cot leeed in confinement (<« sereitmte mom foetant). We therefore confine our observations to the Vti
Among the breeds celebrated lor fighting were the TanagriaxL, the Rhodian, and the Chalcidean ; bat these were not the most profitable for the market. The points of a good barn-door fowl are mmutely described by Varro, Columella, and Palhdi»». who all agree in recommending the breeder t» reject such aa were white, for they were more delicate and less prolific than those whose plumage was darker. Some were permitted to mam about (r*?j<) during the day, and pick op what they could, but the greater number were constantly shut up (e&iasuc) in a poultry yard (gaUimanurn, Apr t to&wx*lav), which was an enclosed court (septets) with a warm aspect, strewed with sand or ashes wherein they might wallow, and covered ever with a net. 11 contained hen- houses (caveae) to which they retired at night and roosted upon poles stretched across (pertieae) for their convenience, nests icmbdia) for the laying hens being contracted along the walls. The whole establishment was under the control of a poultry man l-jmniu, cxtstoa a. curator galUnaritu), who occupied an adjoining hut, usually assisted by an old woman and a boy, for the nocks were often very large, containing upwards of two hun- j dred. The proportion of one cock (gallus) to five hens was commonly observed, the males not
i (ear*). Their food consisted of barley with the husk removed (kordeum jnmsitum), millet, vetches, and lentils, when these articles could be procured cheap, but when too dear, they were supplied with the refuse of wheat, bran with a little of the flour adhering, the seeds of cytisus, and the like.
The laying season began in January and continued until the autumnal equinox. From twentyfive to thirty eggs, the number being increased or diminished according aa the weather was hot or cwJd, were placed beneath a clocking hen (guUina gbxieau) from one to two years old, who was kept constantly shut up except at feeding time, or even furnished with food while on the nest The curator made his rounds regularly during the twenty days of incubation, turning the eggs, that they might ail receive equal heat, and rejecting those which upon examination were found to contain no embryos. Such as were not required for hatching, were preserved by rubbing them with strong brine, and then storing them up in chaff or bran. The chicks for fifteen days were fed by hand on polenta mixed with nasturtium (cress) seed.
Chicken*, when fattened for sale, were shut up in dirk narrow crib*, light and motion being anr to the procem ; or each bird was iwung j a basket, with a small hole at each
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cramped in space that he could not turn round. In this state they were crammed with wheat, linsred, barley meal kneaded with water into small lumps (tmrmmdae)^ and other farinaceous food, the operation requiring from twenty to twentv-fire davs. (Var. uL 9 ; Col ma. viii. 2, &c 12 ; Plin. H. /V. x. 21 ; PaUad. i 27, 29.)
3. Pheaaanta (pJkviani) are not mentioned among domestic poultry by Varro or Columella, but find a place in the compilation of Palladius, who directs that young birds, that is, those of a year old, should be selected as breeders in the proportion of one cock to two hens, and that the
s should be hatched by bam-door fowls. The were to be fed for the first fortnight on cold barley lightly sprinkled with wine, afterwards upon bruised wheat, locusts, and aut'i eggs, and were to be prevented from having Access to water. They became fat in thirty dayi if shut up and crammed with wheat flour made up into small lumps (turumdam) with oiL (Pallad. L 29.)
4. Peacocks (rovoaes, sxm, para*) are said to have been first introduced as an article of food by Q. Hortensius at a banquet on the installation of an augur (amonndt aditiaii enema). They speedily became so much in request that soon sfterwards a single full-grown bird sold for fifty denarii (upwards of a guinea and a half), and a single egg for five (upwards of three shillings), while one breeder, M. Aufidius Liirco, derived an income of 60,000 sesterces (about 5001 sterling) from this source alone. The most favourable situations for rearing peacocks were afforded by the small rocky but well-wooded islets off the Italian coast, when they roamed in freedom without fear of being lost or stolen, provided their own food, and brought up their young. Those persons who could not command such advantage, kept them in small enclosures roofed over, or under porticoes, perches (pert teas) being supplied for them to roost upon, with a large grassy court in front, surrounded by a high wall and shaded by trees. They were fed upon all kinds of grain but chiefly barley, did not arrive at full maturity for breeding until three years old, when one cock was allowed to five hens, and care was taken to supply each bird with a separate neat (duct-eta cubilia). The batching process was most profitably performed by common barn-door fowls, for in this way the pea-hen laid three times in a season, first five eggs (ova paronima)^ then four, and Uutly two or three, but if allowed to incubate herself could rear only one brood. In the time of Varro, three chicks (pulU pavonini) for each full-grown bird were considered a fair return. (Varr. iiL 6 ; Colum, viii. 11 ; Pallad. i 28 ; Plin. x. 20 ; comp. Juv. i. 143.)
5. Geese (anseres) were easily reared, but were not very profitable and somewhat troublesome, for a running stream or a pond with a good supply of herbage was essential, and they could not be turned out to graze in the vicinity of growing crops, which they tore up by the roots, at the same time destroying vegetation by their dung. Birds for breeding were always selected of a large size and pure white, the grey variety (varii rel J'usei) being regarded as inferior on the supposition that they were more nearly allied to the wild species. Their food consisted of clover, fenugreek, lettuce, together with leguminous plants, all of which were sown for their use, and especially an herb called <r4pts by the Greeks, which seems to have been
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a sort of endive. Impregnation took place about mid-winter, one gander being allowed to three females, who when the laying season, which wa9 early in spring, approached, were shut up in a structure (xnvoGoo-Ktiov) consisting of a court (cohort), surrounded by a high wall with a portico inside containing receptacles (harae, cellae, speluncae), from two to three feet square, built of hewn stone or brick, well lined with chaff, for the eggs. Incubation, according to the weather, lasted from twenty-five to thirty days, during which period the mothers were supplied by the custos with barley crushed in water. The goslings remained in the house for about ten days, and were fed upon polenta, poppy seed, and green cresses (nasturtium) chopped in water, after which they were taken out in tine weather to feed in marshy meadows and pools. It was found in practice most advantageous to employ barn-door hens to hatch the eggs, since they made more careful mothers ; and in this case the goose would lay three times in a season, first five eggs, then four, and lastly three.
Goslings, when from four to six months old, were shut up to fatten in dark warm coops (stiginarium), where they were fed with barley pottage and fine Hour moistened with water, being allowed to eat and drink three times a day as much as they could swallow. In this way they became fit for the market in two months or less. A flock of geese furnished not only eggs but feathers also, for it was customary to pluck them twice a year, in spring and autumn, and the feathers were worth five denarii (about three shillings and fourpencc) a pound. (Varro, iii. 10 ; Colum. viii. 13 ; Plin. //. N. x. 22 ; Pallad. L 30.)
6. Ducks (anates). The duck-house (vnaaorpotptiov) was more costly than the chenoboscium, for within its limit* were confined, not only ducks, but querquedulae, phaleridcs, boscades (whatever these may have been), and similar birds which seek their food in pools and swamps. A flat piece of ground, if possible marshy, was surrounded by a wall fifteen feet high, well stuccoed within and without, along the course of which upon an elevated ledge (crepido) a series of covered nests (tecta cubilia) were formed of hewn stone, the whole open space above being covered over with a net or trellice work (datris superpostiis). A shallow pond (piscina) was dug in the centre of the enclosure, the margin formed of opus signinum, and planted round with shrubs ; through this flowed a small stream which traversed the court in a sort of canal into which was thrown food for the inmates, consisting of wheat, barley, millet, acorns, grape skins, small crabs or cray fish, and other water animals. The eggs were generally hatched by common hens, the precautions taken during incubation and the rearing of the ducklings being the same as in the case of pullets. (Var. iii 11 ; Colum. viii. 15.)
I. !>. Columbarium.
Pigeons (columbus, columba). Varro distinguishes two Bpecies or varieties, the one Genus saxatiie s. agreste, probably the Columba livia of naturalists, which was shy and wild, living in lofty turrets (sublimes turriculae), flying abroad without restraint, and generally of a darkish colour, dappled, and without any admixture of white, the other kind more tame (clementius), feeding about the doors of the farm, and for the most part white. Be
tween these a cross breed (misceUum) was usually reared for the market in a lofty edifice (TtptorfporpoQfiov ; ictpto*rtp*aiv), constructed for the purpose. These buildings, placed under the charge of a cohtmbarius, were frequently large enough to contain 5000, were vaulted, or roofed in with tiles, and furnished with one small entrance, but well lighted by means of large barred or latticed windows (fenestras Punicanae, 6. reticulatae). The walls, carefully stuccoed, were lined from top to bottom with rows of round-shaped nests with a single small aperture (columbaria), often formed of earthenware (fictilia), one being assigned to every pair, while in front of each row a plank was placed upon which the birds alighted. A copious supply of fresh water was introduced for drinking and washing ; their food, consisting of the refuse of wheat (excreta tritici), millet, vetches, peas, kidney-beans, and other leguminous seeds, was placed in narrow troughs ranged round the walls, and filled by pipes from without Those pigeons, which were kept in the country, being allowed to go out and in at will, supported themselves for a great part of the year upon what they picked up in the fields, and were regularly fed (aca-ptant amditiva cibariu) for two or three months only ; but those in or near a town were confined in a great measure to the irtpitrreporpotptiov, lest they should be snared or destroyed. They were very fruitful, since one pair would rear eight broods of two each in the course of a year, and the young birds (pulli) very speedily arrived at maturity, and began forthwith to lay in their turn. Those set aside for the market had their wing feathers plucked out and their legs broken, and were then fattened upon white bread previously chewed (manducato Candida farciunt pane).
A handsome pair of breeding pigeons of a good stock would fetch at Rome, towards the close of the republic, two hundred sesterces (upwards of a guinea aiid a half); if remarkably fine, as high as a thousand (nearly eight guineas); and as much as sixteen hundred (more than thirteen pounds) was a price sometimes asked, while Columella speaks of four thousand (upwards of thirty pounds) having been given in his time ; and some persons were said to have a hundred thousand (nearly a thousand pounds sterling) invested in this kind of property. The instinct which teaches pigeons to return to the place where they have been fed was remarked by the ancients, who were wont, for the sake of amusement, to bring them to the theatres and there let them loose. (Varr. iii. 7 ; Colum. viii. 8 ; Plin. //. N. x. 52, 74, xi. 64, xviii. 42 ; Pallad. L 24.)
I. c. Ornitlion, Aviarium (opvi&orpwptiov).
Ornithines, in the restricted sense, were divided into two classes: 1. Those constructed for pleasure merely being designed for the reception of nightingales and other singing buds. 2. Those for profit, in which thousands of wild birds were confined and fattened. Varro gives a very curious and minute description of an oniithon belonging to the first class, which he himself possessed, and Lncullus endeavoured to combine the enjoyment of both, for he had a triclinium constructed in his Tusculan villa inside of an ornithon, delighting to behold one set of birds placed upon the table ready for his repast, while others were fluttering at the windows by which the room was lighted. Omithoncs of the second class, with which alone we are ■1 pfpsmt concerned, were kept by poulterers (mocr/LirUX, and others in the city, but the greater number were situated in Sabinum, because thrushes were most abundant in that region. These huge eayes were formed by enclosing a space of ground with hi?h walls and covering it in with an arched n*>£ Water was introduced by pipes, and eondacted in numerous narrow channels, the windows were lew and small, that light might be excluded as ffioch as possible, and that the prisoners might Bnt pme from looking out upon the open country, where their mates were enjoying freedom. Indeed, to sensitive were thrushes, and so apt to despond when first caught, that it was the practice to shut them up for some time with other tame individuals of" their own kind (rWerursw"), who acted as decoys (■lUtrtarrs >, in reconciling them to captivity. In the interior of this building numerous stakes (pnJi) were fixed upright, upon which the birds might slight; long poles also (perticae) were arranged in Id inclined position resting against the s ails with Rhtb nailed in rows across, and lofts were conrtTEcted, all for the same purpose. Two smaller apartments were attached, one in which the supermtendant (atrafor) deposited the birds which died a aacxral death, in order that he might be able to tcuare accounts with his master, the other, called the ser&sorivat, communicating with the great hall by a door, into which those birds wanted for the market were driven from time to time, and killed eat of sight, lest the others might droop on witnessfeg the fate of their companions.
Millet and wild berries were given freely, but their chief food consisted of dry figs carefully peeled {43'totmter pivuxta) and kneaded with far or pollen into small lumps, which were chewed by perBflta hired to perform this operation. The birds esnally kept in an ornitbon have been mentioned above, but of these by far the most important were thrushes, which made their appearance in vast necks about the vernal equinox, and seem to hare been in ereat request; for out of a single establishment in Sabinum, in the time of Varro, five thousand were sometimes sold in a single year at the rate of three denarii a head, thus yielding a sum of 60,000 sesterces, about five hundred pounds sterling.
The manure from omit hones containing thrushes and blackbirds was not only a powerful stimulant to the soQ, but was given as food to oxen and pigs, who fattened on it rapidly.
Turtle doves (fwrtares, dim. turtmrillae) belonged to the class which did not lay eggs in captivity (see parii aec cxdudit), and consequently, as soon as caught, were put up to fatten (vohtura itu ui oapttmr /artvrae destinatur). They were not however confined in an ordinary ornithon but in a building similar to a dove-cote, with this difference, that the interior, instead of being fitted up with columbaria, contained rowB of brackets {mutulea\ or short stakes projecting horizontally from the wall and rising tier above tier. Over each row, the lowest of which was three feet from the ground, \ empen mats (trgetiaslae cannabinae) were stretched, en which the birds reposed day and night, while nets were drawn tight in front to prevent them from Bring about, which would have rendered them lean. They fattened readily in harvest time, dc%oung most in dry wheat, of which one-half modiuj per day was sufficient for 120 turtles, or in millet moistened with sweet wine. (Varr. iii. » ; Cdam. viii 0; PaJIadL i- 23 ; Plin. H.N. x. 24,
34, 35, M, 58, 74 ; com p. PlnuL Mo*etl. 11. 44 ; Juv. vi 3&)
IL Vivaria. II. o. Ac/wrurirt.
Lepnraria anciently were small walled paddocks, planted thickly with shrubs to give shelter; and intended, as the name implies, for the reception of animals of the tare kind ; vis. 1. The common grey hare (Italumm hoc Host/whs, Sc. Omsi ). 2. The moantain or white hare from the Alps, seldom brought to Rome (fori camdidi ssasf). 3. Rabbits (csjmmwj ), believed to be natives of Spain, These, at least the first and third, bred rapidly, were caught occasionally, shut up in boxes, fattened and sold. In process of time, the name lejvntnum wns chimed for the more appropriate terra dijpiorpo^slor, since a variety of w ild animals, such as boars (upri), stags (orm), and roe deer (n/prme), were procured from the hunter (veaa/or), and shut up in these parks, which now embraced several nrres even in Italy, while in the province*, especially Transalpine (iaul, they frequently comprehended a circuit of many miles of lull and swamp, glade and forest This space was, if possible, fenced by a wall of stone and lime, or of unburn! brick and clay, or, where the extent rendered even the Utter too costly, by a strong pn] iug (racrrrn) formed of upright stakes (sfsptte*) drilled with holes ( ner lain* efihrunhtr\ through which poles (assslt*) were passed horizontally, the whole of oak or cork tn-o timber, braced and, as it were, latticed by planks nailed diagonally (arris tramwrrrn§ c/ufrorv), much in the fashion of wooden hurdle*, Kven in the largest enclosures it was necessary to support tinanimals in winter, and in those of moderate size they were frequently tamed to such an extent, that they would assemble at the sound of a honi to receive their food. (Varr. iii. 12 ; Col urn. ix. 1 ; Plin.H.N. vUi.52.)
Bees (ones). The delight experienced in the management of these creature* is sufficiently proved by the space and care devoted to the subject in Virgil, and by the singularly minute instructions contained in the agricultural writers, especially in Columella, who derived his materials from the still more elaborate compilations of Hyginus and Celsus, the former being the author of a regular l»cc calendar, in whkh the various precepts for the guidance of the bee fancier (ssffonw, apiariu* ; u«AiTovp7or, melitwryu*) were arranged in regular order according to the seasons and days of the year. The methods which the ancients describe differ little, even in trifling details, from those followed by ourselves, although in some respects our practice is inferior, since they never destroyed a hive for the sake of its contents, but abstracted a portion of the honey only, always leaving a sufficient supply for the support of the insects in winter ; and the same swarm, occasionally reinforced by young recruits, might thus continue for ten years, which was regarded as the limit Our superior knowledge of natural history has however enabled us to determine that the chief of the hive is always a female, not a male (rex) as was the general belief ; to ascertain the respective duties performed by the queen, the working bees, and drones {fuci s./i*res), which were unknown or confounded ; and to reject the absurd fancy, to which however we arc indebted for the most charming episode in the Gcorgics, which originated with the Greeks, and is repeated with unhesitating faith by almost every authority, that swarms might be produced by spontaneous generation from the putrescent carcase of an ox (ex bubulo corpore putrcfacto ; and hence they were commonly termed jEWyoVa? by the poets, and by Archelaus flobs tp$iu.4yrfs w«roT7jj«Va Wwa).
The early Romans placed the hives in niches, hollowed out of the walls of the farm-house itself, under the shelter of the eaves (sutler subarundas), but in later times it became more common to form a regular apiary (apiarium, alrearium, mellarium ; fieXirroTpotyuoV) fieXiTT&iTi), sometimes so extensive, as to yield 5000 pounds of honey in a season. This was a small enclosure in the immediate vicinity of the villa, in a warm and sheltered spot, as little subject as possible to great variations of temperature, or to disturbances of any description from the elements or from animals ; and carefully removed from the influence of foetid exhalations, such ns niight proceed from baths, kitchens, stables, dunghills, or the like. A supply of pure water was provided, and plantations were formed of those plants and Bowers to which they weremost attached, especially the cytisus and thyme, the former as being conducive to the health of bees, the latter as affording the greatest quantity of honey (aptissimum ad melificium). The yew was carefully avoided, not because in itself noxious to the swarm, but because the honey made from it was poisonous. (Sic me a Cyrneas fuyiant examina taxos.) The hives (o/m-, a/in', <dcearia, Kv<pt\at\ if stationary, were built of trick (domicilia latertfttis facia) or baked dung (ex fimo), if moveable, and these were considered the most convenient, were hollowed out of a solid block, or formed of boards, or of wicker work, or of bark, or of earthenware, the last being accounted the worst, because more easily affected by heat or cold, while those of cork were accounted best They were perforated with two small holes for the insects to pass in and out, were covered with moveable tops to enable the mellarius to inspect the interior, which was done three times a month, in spring and summer, for the purpose of removing any filth which might have accumulated, or any worms that might have found entrance ; and were nrranged, but not in contact, in rows one above another, care being taken that there should not be more than three rows in all, and that the lowest row should rest upon a stone parapet, elevated three feet from the ground, and coated with smooth stucco to prevent lizards, snakes, or other noxious animals from climbing up.
When the season for swarming arrived, the movements which indicated the approaching departure of a colony (examen) were watched unremittingly, and when it was actually thrown off, they were deterred from a long flight by casting dust upon them, and by tinkling sounds, being at the same time tempted to alight upon some neighbouring branch by rubbing it with balm (apiastrum, pfAur<r6<pvWovy s. u.4Ktvoy, s. /*e\fdJuAAof), or any sweet substance. When they had all collected, they were quietly transferred to a hive similarly prepared, and if they showed any disinclination to enter were urged on by surrounding them with a little smoke.
If quarrelsome, their pugnacity was repressed by sprinkling them with honey water (me/la) ; if lazy, they were tempted out by placing the sweetsmelling plants they most loved, chiefly apiastrum or thyme, in the immediate vicinity of the hive,
recourse being had at the same time to a slight fumigation. If distracted by sedition in consequence of the presence of two pretenders to the throne, the rivals were caught, examined, and the least promising put to death. In bad weather, those stricken down and disabled by cold or sudden rain were tenderly collected, placed in a spot warmed by artificial heat, and as they revived laid down before their hives. When the weather for any length of time prevented them from going abroad, they were fed upon honey and water, or upon figs boiled in must and pounded into a paste
The honey harvest (mellatio, mellis rmt/eiwia, cast ratio alvorum, dies castrundi, /t«AJro«r«j), according to Varro, took place three times a year, but more usually twice only, in June and October ; on the first visitation four- fifths, at the second two thirds of the honey was abstracted ; but these proportions varied much according to the season, and the strength of the particular hive. The system pursued was very simple: the moveable top was taken off, or a door contrived in the side opened, the bees were driven away by a smoking apparatus and the mellarius cut out with peculiarly formed knives as much of the contents as he thought fit.
The comb (fuvus, irnpfoe), which was the product of their industry, was composed of wax (cera, mjpbs) formed into hexagonal cells (sex angulis cello), the geometrical advantages of which were soon discovered by mathematicians, containing for the most part honey (me/, uut RJ8° tne more solid
sweet substance commonly called bee-bread (pro}tolisy wpoVoAtj), the classical name being derived, it is said, from the circumstance that it is found in greatest abundance near the entrance. The combs were cemented together, and the crevices in the hive daubed over with a glutinous gum, the erithace (ipiBa\m\) of Varro and hiB Greek authorities, which seems to be the same with what is elsewhere termed melliao (u,t\iTwpa).
Columella and Palladius describe ingenious plans for getting possession of wild swarms (apes si/lrestrts* ferae, rusticae, as opposed to urbanae, cicures) ; and Pliny notices the humble bees which constructed their nests in the ground, but seems to suppose that they were t*eculiar to a district in Asia Minor. The marks which distinguish the varieties of the domestic species will be found detailed by the different authorities quoted below. (Aristot. Hist, Anim. v. ix ; Aelian. de Anim. i. 59, 60, v. 10,11 ; Var. ii. 5, iiL 3,16 ; Virg. Ge<,r<j. iv. ; Colum. ix. 3. &c., xi. 2 ; Plin. //. A'. xL 5, &c. ; Pallad. i. 37—39, iv. 15, v. 8, vi. 10, viL 7, ix. 7, xi. 13, xii. 8.)
Snails (cochleae). Certain species of snails were favourite articles of food among the Romans, and were used also medicinally in diseases of the lungs and intestines. The kinds most prized were those from Reate, which were small and white; those from Africa of middling size, and very fruitful ; those called solitanae, also from Africa, larger than the former ; and those from Illyria, which were the largest of alL The place where they were preserved (coclUearium) was sheltered from the sun, kept moist, and not covered over, nor walled in, but surrounded by water, which prevented the escape of the inmates who were very prolific, and required nothing except a few laurel leaves and a little bran. They were fattened by shutting them up in a jar smeared with boiled must and flour, and perforated with holes to admit air. It has been recorded that an individual named Fulrias Hirphras constructed, near TarquiniL, the first cochIrariam ever formed in Italy, a short time before tiie civil war between Caesar and Pompcy. (Varr. ~. 14 ; Plin_ //. „V. Ix. 56, in. 7, 15 ; comp. . J**. 93.)
(o&res) were regarded ai articles of such luxury that their use as food wai forbidden ia tbe sumptuary laws of the more rigid censors; bat, Mtsritb^tanduag, a rjHrurium became a comappendage to a villa. It was a small space ith a smooth wall of polinhcd , planted with acorn-bearing tree* U yield food, and containing holes (mri) for rearing the young. They were fattened up in earthen jars (do/ia) of a peculiar construction, upon chestuots. walnuts, and acorns. (Varr. aim. 15 ; Plin. H. S. ix. 57 ; comp. Martial, iii. 58, xiii. 59 ; PetnsL 31 ; A mm. Marc. xxviii. 4.)
II. 6. ttmxmaa. Lastly., we may any a few words upon artificial fea ponds, which were of two kind*—freshwater »), and salt water pondi f a. marUimtee). Jhr. former, from an early period, had frequently attached to ordinary farms, and proved a i of gain ; the latter were unknown until the last half century of the republic, were more objects of luxury, and were confined for the most part to the richest members of the community, tn manv of whom, such aa Hirrus, Philippus, Lacullus, and Honenuna, who are sneering]}' termed piseinarii by Cicero, they became objects of intense interest These receptacles were constructed at a vast cost on the sea coast, a succession being frequently formed for different kinds of fish, and the most ingenious and elaborate contrivances provided for the admission of the tide at particular periods, and for regulating the temperature of the water ; large sums were paid for the stock with which they filled, consisting chiefly of mullets and Jutland a heavy expense was incurred in them, for fishermen were wgularly to catch small fry for their food, and when the weather did not permit such supplies to be procured, salt anchovies and the like were purchased in the market For the most fart they yielded no return whatever, during the lifetime at least of the proprietors, for the garded as pets, and frequently tii answer to the voice and eat from the hand. When sales did take place the prices were very b'gh. Thus Hirrus, who, on one occasion, lent Caesar 6,000 muraenae, at a subsequent period obtained 4,000,000 of sesterces (upwards of 30,0001.) for an ordinary villa, chiefly in consequence of the ponds and the quantity of fish they contained.
A certain Sergins Grata, a short time before the Manic War, formed artificial oyster-beds {vivaria ostnaruja) from which he obtained a large revenue. He first asserted and established the superiority of the shell-fish from the Lucrine Lake, which have a/ways maintained their celebrity, although under the empire /ess esteemed than those from Britain. (Varr. R. R. iii. 17 ; Colom. viii. 16, 17 ; Plin. H.N, ix. 54,55 ; Cic ad Ate. I 19.)
Of modem treatise* connected with the subject of this article the most important is Dickson's "Husbandry of tbe Ancient*," 2 Tola. 8to. 1788,
the work of a Scotch clergyman, who was well acquainted with the practical details of agriculture and who had studied the I^atin writers with great care, bat whose scholarship was unfortunately so imperfect that be was in many instances unable to interpret correctly their expressions. Many useful and acute observations will be found in the ** Economic Politique des Rnmaina ** by Ihireau de la Malle, 2 tom.-s, 8vo. Paris, 1840, but he also is far from being accurate, and he is rmliarrasM -d throughout by very erroneous views with regard to the rate of interest among the Romans, and by the singular misconception that from the expulsion of the kings until the end of the second Punic war, the law forbade any Roman citiaen to possess more than 7 jugem of laud. (Vol. ii. p. 2.) Those who desire to compare the agriculture of modern Italy with ancient usages will do well to consult Arthur Young's ** Travels in Italy," and the Appendix of Symonds ; the ** Agriculture Toseane ** of J. (\ h. Simonde, Hvo. Geneve, 1801 j and M Lettres ccrites d'ltalie a Charles Pictet par M. Lullin de Chateanrieux.M Hro. Paris, 2nd ed. 1820. [W. R]
AGRIMENSURES: (Mit. Griega y Romana). At the foundation of a colony and the assignation of lands the auspiria were taken, for which purpose the presence of th« augur was necessary. But the business of the augur did not extend l>cvond the religious part of the ceremony: the division and measurement of the land were made by professional im-asmer*. These were the Finilore* mentioned in the early writers (Cic. e, RwUm$n\ ii 13 ; Plant as, /'or**/**, Prolog. 49), who in the later periods were called Mcnsores and Airrimenson*s. The business of a Finitor could only l>e done by a free man, and the honourable nature of his office is indicated by the rule that there was no bargain for his services, but he received his pay in the form of a (rift These Finitores appear also to have acted as judicrs, under the name of arbitri, in those disputes about boundaries which were purely of a technical, not a legal, character.
Under the empire the observance of the auspices in the fixing of camps and the establishment of military colonies was less regarded, and the practice of the Ayrimensores was reduced to a system bv Julius Frontinus, If y gin us, Siculus Placcus, and other Gromatic writers as they are sometimes termed. As to the meaning of the term Ciroma, and the derived words, see Faectolati, fjf.rinm% and the Index to Ooesius, /fist* A on trio* Scnptorri. The teachers of geometry in the "large cities of the empire used to give praetiral instruction on the system of gromatice. This practical geometry was one of the liberalia stadia (Dig. 50. tit 13. a 1) ; but the professors of geometry and the teachers of law were not exempted from the obligation of being tutores, and from other such burdens (Frwr- ''"^ § 150), a fact which shows the subordinate rank which the teachers of elementary science then held.
The Agrimensor could mark out the limits of the centuria«",and restore the boundaries where they were confused, but he could not assign (astrifptttre) without a commission from the emperor. Military persons of various classes are also sometimes mentioned as practising surveying, and settling disputes about boundaries. The lower rank of the professional Agrimensor, as contrasted with the Kinitor of earlier periods, is shown by the fact that in the imperial period there might l>e a contract with aa Agrimensor for paying biin for his sen-ices,
The Agrimensor of the later period was merely employed in disputes as to the boundaries of properties. The foundation of colonies and the assignation of lands were now less common, though we read of colonies being established to a kite period of the empire, and the boundaries of the lands must have been set out in due form. (Hyginus, p. 177, ed. Goes.) Those who marked out the ground in camps for the soldiers1 tents are also called Mensores, but they were military men. (Vegetius, De Re MilUari, ii. 7.) The functions of the Agrimensor are shown by a passage of Hyginus (De Controvera. p. 170) : in all questions as to determining boundaries by means of the marks (signa\ the area of surfaces, and explaining maps and plans, the services of the Agrimensor were required : in all questions that concerned property, right of road, enjoyment of water, and other easements (servitutes) they were not required, for these were purely legal questions. Generally, therefore, they were either employed by the parties themselves to Bettle boundaries, or they received their instructions for that purpose from a judex. In this capacity they were advocati. But they ah*> acted as judices, and could give a final decision in that class of smaller questions which concerned the quinque pedes of the Mamilia Lex (Lux Mamilia), as appears from Frontinus (pp. 63,75, cd. Goes.). Under the Christian emperors the name Mensores was changed into Agrimensores to distinguish them from another class of Mensores, who are mentioned in the codes of Thcodosius and Justinian (vi. 34, xii. 28). By a rescript of Constantine and Constans (a. D. 344) the teachers and learners of geometry received immunity from civil burdens. According to a constitution of Theodosius and Valentinian (a. D. 440) as given in the eollection of Goesius (p. 344), they received jurisdiction in questions of Alluvio ; but Rudorff observes, " that the decisive words ' ut judicio agrimensoris finiatur,' and * haec agrimensorum semper esse judicia' are a spurious addition, which is not found either in Nov. Theod. Tit 20, nor in L. 3. C. De Alluv. (Cod. Just. vii. tit 41)." According to another constitution of the same emperors, the Agrimensor was to receive an aureus from each of any three bordering proprietors whose boundaries he settled, and if he set a limes right between proprietors, he received an aureus for each twelfth part of the property through which he restored the limes. Further, by another constitution of the same emperors (Goesius, p. 343),'the young Agrimensores were to be called u clarissimi * while they were students, and when they began to practise their profession, spcctabiles. All this, which is repented by modem writers, is utterly incredible. (Rudorff, p. 420, &c, and the notes.)
(Rudorff, (feber die Fcldiaesser, Zeitschrift fur Geschicht Rcchtsw. vol. x. p. 412, a clear and exact exposition ; Niebuhr, vol. ii. appendix 2 ; Duroau de la Malle, Eoonomie Politique des Roinains, vol. i. p. 179 j the few remarks of the last writer are of no value.) [G. L.J
AGRIO'NIA (iypuiyia), a festival which was celebrated at Orchomenus, in Boeotia, in honour of Dionysus, surnamed '.Vypufciof. It appears from Plutarch (Quaest. Rom. 102), that this testival was solemnised during the night only by women and the priests of Dionysus. It consisted of a kind of game, in which the women for a l>ng time acted as If seeking Dionysus, and at last called out to one
another that he had escaped to the Muses, and had concealed himself with them. After this they prepared a repast; and having enjoyed it, amused themselves with solving riddles. This festival was remarkable for a feature which proves its great antiquity. Some virgins, who were descended from the Minyans, and who probably used to assemble around the temple on the occasion, fled and were followed by the priest armed with a sword, who was allowed to kill the one whom he first caught. This sacrifice of a human being, though originally it must have formed a regular part of the festival, seems to have been avoided in later times. One instance, however, occurred in the days of Plutarch. (Quaest. Grate. 38.) But as the priest who had killed the woman was afterwards attacked by disease, and several extraordinary accidents occurred to the Minyans, the priest and his family were deprived of their official functions. The festival, as well as its name, is said to have been derived from the daughters of Minyas, who, after having for a long time resisted the Bacchanalian fury, were at length seized by an invincible desire of eating human flesh. They therefore cast lots on their own children, and as Hippasus, son of Leucippe, became the destined victim, they killed and ate him, whence the women belonging to that race were at the time of Plutarch still called the destroyers (oXsuu or aio\cuat) and the men mourners (tyoKous). (Miiller, Die Mtnyer, p. 166. &c; K. F. Hermann, Lehrbuch d. gotUsdienstlichen Alterthumer d. Griechen, § 63. n. 13.) [L. S.]
AGRO'NOMI (aypov6poi), are described by Aristotle as the country police, whose duties corresponded in most respects to those of the astynomi iu the city [astynomi], and who performed nearly the same duties as the hylori (u\wpol). (PoliU vi. 5.) Aristotle does not inform us in what state they existed ; but from the frequent mention of them by Plato, it appears probable that they belonged to Attica. (Plat. Legg. vi. pp. 617, 618 j Timaeus, Lex. s. v. and Ruhnken's note, in which several passages are quoted from Plato.)
AGROTERAS THU'SIA (hyporipasMa), a festival celebrated every year at Athens in honour of Artemis, surnamed Agrotera (from aypa, chase). It was solemnized, according to Plutarch (De Malign. Herod. 26), on the sixth of the month of Boedromion, and consisted in a sacrifice of 500 goats, which continued to be offered in the time of Xenophon. (Xenoph. A nab. iii. 2. § 12.) Aelian ( V. H. ii. 25) places the festival on the sixth day of Thargclion, and says that 300 goats were sacrificed ; but as the battle of Marathon which gave rise to this solemn sacrifice, occurred on the sixth of Boedromion, Aclian's statement appears to be wrong. (Plut. De Glor. Allien. 7.)
This festival is said to have originated in the following manner: — When the Persians invaded Attica, Callimachus, the polemarch, or, according to others, Miltiades, made a vow to sacrifice to Artemis Agrotera as many goats as there should be enemies slain at Marathon. But when the number of enemies slain was so great, that an equal number of goats could not be found at once, the Athenians decreed that 500 should bo sacrificed every year. This is the statement made by Xenophon ; but other ancient authors give different accounts. The Scholiast on Aristoph. (Eauii. 666) relates that the Athenians, before the battle, promised to sacrifice to Artemis one ox for every enemy slain ; but when
the cumber of oxen could not be Tsrocnrrd, they substituted an equal number of goau. [L. S.] AGl'RMUS (07^1). Ikubvsinia.] AGYRTAE (aVyopreu'), mendicant priest*, who were accustomed tn travel through the different towns of Greece, soliciting aims for the gods whom they srrred. These priests carried, either on their shoulders or on beasts of burthen, images of their respective deities. They appear to hare been of Oriental origin, and were chiefly connected with the worship of I sis, Opts and Arge (Herod, It. 36), and especially of the great mother of the gods ; : they were adled |*wTpory6pTas. They were ' speaking, persons of the lowest and most character. They undertook to inflict some grievous bodily injury on the enemy of any individual who paid them for such services, and also promised, for a small sum of money, to obtain forgiveness from the gods whom they served, for any sins which either the individual himself or his ancestors had committed. (Plat Rep. ii. p. 364,b. ; Pint. Smpertt. c 3 ; Zoaim. L II j Max. Tyr. vis. 3; Athen. vi. p. 266, d ; Origen, e.i'tU. i p. 8; PhiL tUs*. ii. p, 792 ; Ruhnken.od Txmaei La. a re. iqetioovo-aw and es-orysryaf; K. F. Hermann, Ixkrbock d. fjattadiautlichc* AUerViumtr d. Griscaea,! 42, n. 13.)
These mendicant priests came into Italy, but at what time is uncertain, together with the worship of the gods whom they served. (Cic De Leg. ii. 16; Beindorff, ad ffar. Sen*. 12. 2.) AHE'NUM. [abncm.] AIKIAS DIKE Iaucioi JUr»\ an action brought at Athens, before the court of the Forty (el rtrTapAKorra\ against any individual, who had struck a citizen of the state. Any citizen, who bad been thus insulted, might proceed in two ways against the offending party, either by the oia-tas Sim), which was a private action, or by the v€p*wt ypa^rij, which was looked upon in the light cf a public prosecution, since the state was considered to be wronged in an injury done to any citizen. It appears to have been a principle of the Athenian law, to give an individual, who had been injured, more than one mode of obtaining redress. If the plaintiff brought it as a private suit, the defendant would only be condemned to pay a fine, which the plaintiff received ; but if the cause was brought as a public suit, the accused might be punished even with death, and if condemned to pay a fine, the latter went to the state.
It was necessary to prove two facts in bringing the cuauos Slktj before the Forty. First, That the defendant had struck the plaintiff, who must have been a free man, with the intention of insulting him (4«V ttpti), which, however, was always presumed to have been the intention, unless the defendant could prove that he only struck the plaintiff in joke. Thus Ariston, after proving that he had been struck by Conon, tells the judges that Conon will attempt to show that he had only struck him in play. (Dem. c Conon. p. 1261.) Secondly, It was necessary to prove that the defendant struck the plaintiff first, and did not merely return the blows which had been given by the pliinttff (Spxf" Xnfm^r &°^Ktcvi or merely iZixuiv ifXtf, Dem. e. Etserg. pp. 1141, 1151.)
In this action, the sum of money to be paid by fie defendant as damages -was not fixed by the laws ; to the plaintiff assessed the amount according to tie iojorr, which he thought he had received, and
the judges determined nn the justice of the claim. It was thus an assessed action, and resembled the procedure in public causes. The orations of I>emosthenes against Conon, and of Isocrates against Lochiles, were spoken in an action of this kind, and both of these bars come down to us ; and there were two orations of I.vlias, which are tost, relating to the same action, namely, sgainst Thenpompus and Hippocrates. (Harpocrat. a. r. aortas ; Meier, Alt. /■raws, p. 447, Ac ; Botkh, PmU. Arm. ./ Aliens, pp. 332, 364, 372, 374, 2nd ed.)
AITHOUSA («»Wa), a word only used by Homer, is probably for aftWons tfvod, a portico exposed to the sun. From the pas sag- s in which it occurs, it seems to denote a covered portico, opening on to the court of the house, avAfj, in front of the vestibule, vpoOvpw. Thus a chariot, leaving the house, is described as passing out of the wpAQvpor and the ■ Newsra. (It. xxiv. 323 ; Od. iii. 4 S3, xv. 146, 191.). The word is used also in the plural, to describe apparently the porticoes which surrounded the aiAS). '(IL vL 243; It was in such a portico that guests were lodged for the night. (Oof. iii. 399, vii. 343). It was also the place of reception for people flocking to the palace on a public occasion til. xiiv. 239 ; Od. viu. 37) ; and hence perhaps the epithet ipibovroi, which Homer usually connects with it [P. 3.]
ALA, a part of a Roman house. [Don us.]
ALA, ALARES, ALARIL. These words like all other terms connected with Roman warfare, were used in different or at least modified acceptations at different periods.
Ala, which literally means o trim;, wni from tlx* earliest epoch* employed tn drnnte the wing of an army, and this signification it always retained, but in process of time was frequently used in a restricted sense.
1. When a Roman army was composed of Roman citizens exclusively, the flanks of the infantry when drawn up in battle array were covered on the right and left by the cavalry ; and hence Ala denoted the body of hone which was attached to and served along with the foot-soldiers of the legion. (Sea Cinciua, de He Mil&ari, who, although he flourished B. c 200, ia evidently explaining in the passage quoted by Aulus Gelliua. xvi. 4, the original acceptation of the term.)
2. When, at a later date, the Roman armies were composed partly of Roman citizens and partly of Socii. either Latmi or ftalici, it became the practice to marshal! the Roman troops in the centre of the battle line and the Socii upon the wings. Hence ala and alarii denoted the contingent furnished by the allies, both horse and foot, and the two divisions were distinguished as dertera ala and tinietra ala. (Liv. xxviL 2, xxx. 21, xxxi. 21 ; Lip*, de AfilU. Horn. ii. dial. 7. We find in Li v. z. 40, the expression cum cokortUmt alarii*, and in x. 43, D. flntfum Scaeram legntwm cum Injione prima et decern cohortibtu alariis equitaitupte ire .... juKsit.)
3. When the whole of the inhabitants of Italy had been admitted to the privileges of Roman citizens the terms alarii, rohorte* alariae were transferred to the foreign troops serving along with the Roman armies. Tn Caesar (Ii. O. i. 51) we see theAlarii expressly distinguished from the tegionarii, and we find the phrase C. i. 73) cohortesalarias et Ugianariae, while Cicero {ad Fam. ii. 17) speaks of the Alarii ~~
4. Lastly, under the empire, the term ala was applied to regiments of horse, raised it would seem with very few exceptions in the provinces, serving apart from the legions and the cavalry of the legions. It is to troops of this description that Tacitus refers when {Ann. xv. 10) he mentions Alares Parmtmii robur equitatus.
Some further details on this subject are given under Exercitur. [W. R.]
ALABARCHES (aAaedpxw), appears to have been the chief magistrate of theJews at Alexandria; but whose duties, as far as the government was concerned, chiefly consisted in raising and paying the taxes. (Joseph. Ant. xviii. 18. § 1, xix. 5. § 1, xx. 5. § 2; Euseb. H.E. ii. 5.) Hence, Cicero (ad Att. ii. 17) calls Pompey alabarches from his raising the taxes. The etymology of this word is altogether uncertain, and has given rise to great disputes ; some modern writers propose, but without sufficient reason, to change it, in all the passages in which it occurs, into arabareJits. The question is fully discussed by Sturzms. (De Dialect. M(icedon. et Alexandria, p. 65, &c.)
ALABASTRUM and ALABASTER (iX(£Gaorpov, oActeeurrpos), a box or vase for holding perfumes and ointments; so called because they were originally made of alabaster, of which the variety, called onyx-alabaster, was usually cmployed for this purpose. (Plin.//. N. xiii. 2. s. 3, xxxvi. 8. s. 12.) They were, however, subsequently made of other materials, as, for instance, gold (x/>wr«ia aAi&wrrpa). Such vases are first mentioned by Herodotus (iii. 21*), who Bpeaks of an "alabaster-box of perfumed ointment" (fityov aAd€a<rrpov)i as one of the presents sent by Cambyses to the Ethiopian king ; and after his time they occur both in Greek and Roman writers. (Aristoph. AcJiarn. 1053 ; Aclian, V. If. xii. 18 ; Martial, xi. 8 ; Matth. xxvi. 7; Mark, xiv. 3 ; Luke, vii. 37.) These vessels were of a tapering shape, and very often had a long narrow neck, which was sealed; so that when the woman in the Gospels is said to break the alabaster-box of ointment for the purpose of anointing Christ, it appears probable that she only broke the extremity of the neck, which was thus closed.
ALABASTRI'TES. [alabaster.]
ALAEA ('AAeuo), games which were annually celebrated at the festival of Athena, surnamed Alea, near Tegea, in the neighbourhood of the magnificent temple of the same goddess. (Pans, viii. 47. i 3.) [L. S.]
ALA'RII. [ala.]
ALAUDA, a Gaulish word, the prototype of the modern French Alouette^ denoting a small crested bird of the lark kind which the Latins in allusion to its tuft denominated Galerita. The name alauda was bestowed by Julius Caesar on a legion of picked men, which he raised at his own expence among the inhabitants of Transalpine Gaul, about the year B. C. 55, not as erroneously asserted by Gibbon, during the civil war j which he equipped and disciplined after the Roman fashion ; and on which in a body, he at a subsequent period bestowed the freedom of the state. This seems to have been the first example of a regular Roman legion levied in a foreign country and composed of barbarians. The designation was, in all probability, applied from a plume upon the helmet, resembling the "apex" of the bird in question, or from the general shape and appearance
of the head-piece, Cicero in a letter to Atticus, written in B. c. 44, states that he had received intelligence that Antoitius was marching upon the city w cum legione alaudarum," and from the Philippics we learn that by the Lex Judiciaria of Antonius even the common soldiers of this corps (AUiudae manijrulares ex letpone Afaudarum ) were privileged to act as judices upon criminal trials, and enrolled along with the veterans in the third decuria of judices, avowedly, if we can trust the orator, that the framer of the law and his friends might have functionaries in the courts of justice upon whose support they could depend.
That the legion Alauda, was numbered V. is proved by several inscriptions, one of them belonging to the age of Doniitiau in honour of a certain Cn. Doniitius, who among many other titles is
St}'led TRIB. MIL. LEG. V. ALAUttAK. It had
however disappeared from the army list in the time of Dion Cassius, that is, in the early part of the third century, for the historian, when giving a catalogue of such of the twenty-three or twenty-five legions which formed the establishment of Augustus, as existed when he wrote, makes no mention of any fifth legion except the Quinta Macedonica. (Suetonu Jul. 24 ; Caesar, B. C. I 39 ; Plin. H. N. xi. 44 ; Cic. Philip, i. U. § 20, v. 5. § 12, xiii. 2. § 3, 18. § 37 ; Gruter, Corp, Jnscrip. Iau. OOCCQL I, D.XLIV. 2, DXL1X. 4, DUX 7 ; Orelli, Inncrip. Lat. n. 773.) [W. R.]
ALBOGALE'RUS. [apkx.] ALBUM is defined to be a tablet of any material on which the praetor's edicts, and the rules relating to actions and interdicts, were written. [edictum.] The tablet was put up in a public place in Rome, in order that all persons might have notice of its contents. According to some authorities, the album was so called, because it was either a white material, or a material whitened, and of course the writing would be a different colour. According to other authorities, it was so called because the writing was in white letters. If any person wilfully altered or erased (raserrf, corrufierit, mutaverit) any thing in the album, he was liable to an action albi cvrrupti, and to a heavy penalty. (Dig. 2. tit i. s. 7, 9.)
Probably the word album originally meant any tablet containing any thing of a public nature. Thus, Cicero informs us that the Annales Maximi were written on the album by the pontifcx maxima*. (De Orat. ii. 12.) But, however this may he, it was in course of time used to signify a list of any public body ; thus we find the expression, album senatorium, used by Tacitus (Ann. iv. 4*2), to express the list of senators, and corresponding to the word teucoma used by Dion Cassius (lv. 3). The phrase album decurionum signifies the list of decuriones whose names were entered on the album of a municipium, in the order prescribed by the lex municipalis, so far as the provisions of the lex extended. (Dig. 50. tit 3.) Album judicum is the list of judices. (Suet Claud. 16*.) [judex.] [G. L.]
ALCATHOEA (aKKoSoai). The name of games celebrated at Megara, in commemoration of the Eleian hero Alcathous, son of Pelops, who had killed a Hon which had destroyed Euippus, son of King Megarcus. (Piud. IsOim. viii. 148 ; Paus. L 42. § 1.) [L.S.]
ALEA, gaming, or playing at a game of chance of any kind. Hence, a/ca, a/cutor, a gamester, a
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(Cic, as Otf. ii. 10, ad Att. xiv. 5*) It was also ibrbKtden at Rom* by special laws, during the tisjes of the republic, and tinder the empenira (rrtiia letjih&g aim). (hot. f "arm. iii. 24. 58 ; Cic P&ip. iL 23; Or. 7Vtat, ii. 470, Dig. 11.
tit. 5.) We have, however, no express in format jc-n as to the time when these laws were enacted or the exact provisions which they contained. There are three laws mentioned in the Digest {L c) forbidding gambling, the Lege* 7£f*a, Fu6beia*, and (ontriia^ and likewise a tenatiu consuitam, and the praetor's edictum. At what time the two former laws were passed is quite oncertain ; bat the Lex Cornelia was probably one of the laws of the dictator Snlla, who, we know, made several enactments to check the extravagance and expense of private persons. [SusrrUs.] Some writers infer from a passage of Plautus (MiL Gtar. h. 2. 9) that gaming must hare been forbidden by law in his time ; but the lex talaria in this passage seems rather to refer to the laws of the same than to any public enactment. Some modern writers, however, read lex alearia in this passage. The only kinds of gaming allowed by the law were, first, playing at table for the different articles of mod, and playing for money at games of strength, such as hurling the javelin, running, jumping, boxing, &c ( Dig. L e.) Those who were competed of gaming were condemned to pay four times the sum thev had ■taked (Pseudo-Ascon. in fEt Dir. | 24. p. MO. ed. Orelli), and became utfamta in consequence. We know that infamta was frequently a consequence of a judicial decision [IsrsMLi}; and we may infer that it was in this ease from the expression of Cicero. ("Hominem I lege, quae est de a lea, condemnatum, in integrum rrstituit," Cic Phil. ii. 23.) Justinian forbade all gaming both in public and in private. (Cod. 3. tit. 43.) Games of chance were, however, tolerated in the month of December at the Saturnalia, which was a period of general relaxation (Mart. iv. 14, v. 84; Gefl. xviiL 13; Suet. Aug. 71); and among the Greeks*, aa well as the Romans, public opinion allowed old men to amuse themselves in this manner. (Eorip. Med. 67 ; Cic Sextet. 16.) Under the empire gambling was carried to a great height, and the laws were probably little more than nominal. Many of the early emperors, Augustus, Caligula, Claudius, Vitellius, and Domitiart, were very fond of gaming, and set but an evil example to their subjects in this matter. (Suet Aug. 70, 71 ; Dion Cass. lix. 22 ; Suet Cat. 41, Oamd. 33; Dion Cass. Ix. 2 ; Suet Dom. 21.) Professed gamesters made a regular study of their art; and there were treatises on the subject, among which was a book written by the emperor Claudins. (O. Tritt. iL 471 ; Suet Claud. 33.)
Ales sometimes denotes the implement used in playing, as in the phrase jacta aJea cut, ** the die if cast** ottered by Julius Caesar, immediately before he crossed the Rubicon (Suet Jul. 32); and it is often used for chance, or uncertainty in genera/. (hot. Carm. iL J. 6 ; Cic. Die. ii. 15.) Rcspectmp the enactments against gambling,
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der Homery p. 833.
The fragments of an interesting record of an institution of this kind by Trajan have been found at V'elleia, near Placentia, from which we learn the sums which were thus distributed, and the means by which the money was raised. A similar institution was founded by the younger Pliny, at Comum. (Plin. Kyi*, vii. 18, i. 8 ; and the inscription in Orelli, 1172.) Trajan's benevolent plans were carried on upon a larger scale by Hadrian and the Antonines. Under Com mod us and Pertinax the distribution ceased. In the reign of Alexander Severus, we again meet with altmentariipueri andpneilae^ who were called Mamma+aniy in honour of the emperor's mother. We learn, from a decree of Hadrian (Ulp. ra Dig. 34. tit L a. J 4), that boys enjoyed the benefits of this institution up to their eighteenth, and girls up to their fourteenth year ; and, from an inscription (Fabretti, 233, 619), that a boy four years and seven months old received nine times the ordinary monthly distribution of corn. (Aurel. Vict Epit. xii. 4 ; Capitol in. Ant. 8, M. Aur.
26, Peri. 9 ; Spart Had. 7 ; Lamprid. $m. Alex, hi \ Orelli, Inter. 3364, 3366 ; Fabretti, 234, 617 ; Rase he, I*x. Univ. Hei Sum. *. v. Tuieia It alias ; Eckhel, Doet. Num. Vet. vol vi. p. 408 ; F. A. Wolf, Von einer mil dm Strung Trajans.) [P.S]
ALTPILUS, a slave, who attended on bathers, to remove the superfluous hair from their bodies. (Sen. Kp. 56 ; Pignor. de Serv. 42.). [P. S.]
ALIPTAE (oAf/xTOi) among the Greeks, were persons who anointed the bodies of the. athletae, preparatory to their entering the palaestra. The chief object of this anointing was to close the pores of the body, in order to prevent excessive perspiration, and the weakness consequent thereon. To effect this object, the oil was not simply spread over the surface of the body, but also well rubbed into the skin. The oil was mixed with fine African sand, several jars full of which were found in the hatha of Titus, and one of these is now in the British Museum. This preparatory anointing was called h Tapao-(cei>ao-T»ch Toiijuf. The athleta was again anointed after the contest, in order to restore the tone of the skin and muscles ; this anointing was called fi aTrudtpairiii. He then bathed, and had the dust, sweat, and oil scraped on" his body, by means of an instrument similar to the strigil of the Romans, and called arKtyyit, and afterwards £iarpa. The aliptae took advantage of the knowledge they necessarily acquired of the state of the muscles of the athletac, and their general strength or weakness of body, to advise them as to their exercises and mode of life. They were thus a kind of medical trainers. laTpaAehrTai. (Plut de Tuend. San. 16. p. 430 ; Celsus, L 1; Plin. H. N. xxix. 1, 2.) Sometimes they even superintended their exercises, as in the case of Milcsias. (Pindar,0/ym.viii.54—71 jandBiickh's note.) [athlktae.j The part of the palaestra in which the athletae were anointed was called
Among the Romans, the aliptae were slaves who scrubbed and anointed their masters in the baths. They, too, like the Greek aAtlirrai, appear to have attended to their masters' constitution and mode of life. (Cic. ad Fam. i. 9, 35 ; Senec. Ep. 56 ; Juvenal, Sat. iii. 76, vi. 422 ; Pignor. de Sen. p. 81.) They were also called wctorts. They used in their operations a kind of scraper called a strigil, towels (lintea), a cruise of oil (outfits), which was usually of horn, a bottle [ampulla], and a small vessel called lentictda. [baths.]
The apartment in the Greek palaestra where the anointing was performed was called aAeiirT^piov, that in the Roman baths was called unctuarium. [P. S.]
ALLU'VIO. " That," says Gains (ii. 70, &c.), " appears to be added to our land by alluvio, which a river adds to our land (ager) so gradually that we cannot estimate how much is added in each moment of time ; or, as it is commonly expressed, it is that which is added so gradually as to escape observation. But if a river (at once) takes away a part of your land, and brings it to mine, this part still remains your property." There is the same definition by Gains in his Res CotidiantK (Dig. 41. tit. 1. s. 7), with this addition: — " If the part thus suddenly taken away should adhere for a considerable time to my land, and the trees on such part should drive their roots into my land, from that time such part appears to belong to my land." The aoquisitio per altuvionem was considered by the Roman jurists to be by the jus gentium, in the Roman sense of that term ; and it was comprehended under the general head of Acccssio. A man might protect his land against loss from the action of a river by securing the banks of his land (Dig. 43. tit. 15; De Ripa Munienda), provided he did not injure the navigation.
If an island was formed in the middle of a river, it was the common property of those who possessed lands on each bank of the river ; if it was not in the middle, it belonged to those who possessed lands on that bank of the river to which it was nearest. (Gaius, ii. 72.) This is explained more minutely in the Digest (41. tit 1. s. 7). A river means a public river (Jlmnen puWcum).
According to a constitution of the Emperor
Antoninus Pius, there was no jus alluvionis in tht> case of agri limitati, for a certain quantity (ccrtiu cuique modus) was assigned by the form of the centuriae. (Dig. 41. tit. 1. s. 16; comp. Azgenus Urbicus, in Frontin. Comment. De AUurione, pars prior, edl Goes ; and Ager.) Circumlurio differs from alluvio in this, that the whole of the land in question is surrounded by water, and subject to its action. Cicero (De Orat. i. 38) enumerates the jura alluvionum and circumluriouum as matters included under the head of causae cmtumvirales. <
The doctrine of alluvio, as stated by Bracton in the chapter De aequirendo Rerum Dominio (fol. 9), is taken from the Digest (41. tit. 1. s. 7), and is in several passages a copy of the words of Gaius, as cited in the Digest. [G. L.)
ALOA or HALOA ('AA»a, 'AA£a), an Attic festival, but celebrated principally at Kleusis, in honour of Dcmeter and Dionysus, the inventors of the plough and protectors of the fruits of the earth. It took place every year after the harvest was over, and only fruits were offered on this occasion, partly as a grateful acknowledgment for the benefits the husbandman had received, and partly that the next harvest might be plentiful. We learn from Demosthenes (c. Neaer. p. 1385), that it was unlawful to offer any bloody sacrifice on the day of this festival, and that the priests alone had the privilege to offer the fruits. The festival was also called ZaAvvia (Hesvch. i. e.), or avyKOfuarfjpia. [L.S.]
ALO'GIOU GRAPHE' (0X07(01; ypa^i) an action which might be brought before the logistac (Koyurral) at Athens, against all persons who neglected to pass their accounts, when their term of office expired. (Suid. Hcsych. Etymol. *. v. ; Pollux, viii. 54 ; Meier, Att. Process, p. 363.)
ALTA'RE. [aha.]
ALU'TA [calckus.]
ALYTAE (oaatoi). [oi.ympia.]
AMANUENSIS, or AD MANUMSERVUS, a slave, or freedman, whose office it was to write letters and other things under his master's direction. The amanuensis must not be confounded with another sort of slaves, also called ad manum servi, who were always kept ready to be employed in any business. (Suet Cats. 74, Aug. 67, Ner. 44, Tit. 3, Vesp. 3 j Cio. De Orat. i'ii. 60, 225 ; Pignor. De Serms, 109.) [P. S.]
AMARY'NTHIA, or AMARY'SIA ("Ajiapvviia, or 'Afiapioia), a festival of Artemis Amarynthia, or Amarysia, celebrated, as it seems, originally at Amarynthus in Euboea, with extraordinary splendour ; but it was also solemnized in several places in Attica, such as Athmone (Paus. i. 31. § 3) ; and the Athenians held a festival, as Pausanias says, in honour of the same goddess, in no way less brilliant than that in Euboea. (Hesych. s. v. 'Afiapvcia.) The festival in Euboea was distinguished for its splendid processions ; and Strabo himself (x. p. 448) seems to have seen, in the temple of Artemis Amarynthia, a column on which was recorded the splendour with which the Eretrians at one time celebrated this festival. The inscription stated, that the procession was formed of three thousand heavy-armed men, six hundred horsemen, and sixtv chariots, (Comp. Schol. ad Rind. 01. xiii. 159.) [L. S.]
AMBARVA'LIA. [arvalks Fratrks.]
A'MBITUS, which literally signifies "a going about," cannot, perhaps, be more nearly expressed than by our word canvassing. After the plehs had formed a distinct estate at Rome, and when the whole body of the ciuxens bad become very greatly inert iised, we frequently read, in the Roman writers, of the great eifurta which it waa necessary for candidates to make, in order to secure the rote* of the citizens. At Rome, as in every community into whkh the element of popular election eaten, solicitation of votes, and open or secret ' and bribery, were among the means by i a candidate secured his election to the office* of state. The elections recurred annually, and candidates had plenty of practice in the various modes of corruption.
Whatever may be the authority of the piece httitled ** Q. Ciceroni* de Petitione Conaulatus ad M. Tullium Fratrem,** it seems to present a pretty air picture of those arts and means, by which a candidate might lawfully endeavour to secure the votes of the electors, and also some intimation of those means which were not lawful, and which it was the object of various enactments to repress.
A candidate was called petdor; and his with reference to him, competitor. A {caMdsdatus) was so called from his appearing in the public places, such as the fora and Campus Martins, before his fellow-citizens, in a whitened toga, (m such occasions, the candidate was attended by his friends {deductores) ^ or followed by the poorer citizens (sectusores), who could in no other manner show their good will or give their assistance. (Cic pro J/sreao, c 34.) The word assiduitas expressed both the continual presence of the candidate at Rome, and his continual solicitations. The candidate, in going his rounds or taking his walk, was accompanied by a uomencJatorj who gave him the names of such persons as he might meet; the candidate was thus enabled to address them by their name, an indirect compliment which could not fail to be generally gratifying to the electors. The candidate accompanied his address with a shake of the hand (premsatio). The term busuputas comprehended generally any kind of treating, as bbows, feasts, etc. Candidates sometimes left Rome, and visited the coloniae and municipia, in whkh the citizens had the suffrage ; thus Cicero proposed to visit the Cisalpine towns, when he was a candidate for the consulship. (Cic ad AU. i. 1.)
That ambitus, which was the object of several penal enactments, taken as a generic term, comprehended the two species,— ambitus and la rait tones < bribery). Libcrulitaa and benigmtat are opposed by Cicero, as things allowable, to ambitus and largiiio, as things illegal (Cic. de Oral. ii. 25 ; and compare pro Murena, c 36.) The word for ambitus in the Greek writers is 0**007*0*. Money was paid for votes ; and in order to insure secrecy and secure the elector, persons called interptrtes were employed to make the bargain, sequestres to hold the money till it was to be paid (Cic. pro Gueut. 26), and dhisores to distribute it (Cic ad An. L 16.) The offence of ambitus was a matter which belonged to the judicia publics, and the enactments against it were numerous. The earliest enactment that is mentioned simply forbade persons " to add white to their dress,** with a riew to an election. (b.c 43*2 ; Liv. iv. 25.) Thii seems to mean using some white sign or token on the dress, to signify that a man was a candidate. The object of the law was to check tsjftts, the name for going about to canvass, in placeof which ambitus waa subsequently employed.
Still the practice of using a white dress on occasion
to have given
Yawing was usual, and appears t to the application of the term camdtdatus to one who was a petitor. {Crctata ambttioj Persius, Sat v. 177 ; Polyb. x. 4. ed. Dckker.) A Lex Poetelia (b.c 358 ; Ut. vii. 15) forbade candidates canvassing on market days, and going about to the places in the country where people were collected. The law was paa*ed mainly to rhnrk the pretensons of novi homines, of whom the nobiles were jealous. Dy the Lex Cornelia lUebia (B.C 181) those who were convicted of ambitus were incapacitated from being candidate* fur trn yean. (Liv. xl. 19; ScJuJ. Boo. p. 361.) The Lex A cilia Calpurnia (ac. 67) was intended to suppress treating of the electors and other IQte ins tiers: the penalties were fine, exclusion the senate, and perpetual incapacity to bold * (Dion Cass, xxxvi. 21.) The Lex Tullia was passed in the consulship of Cicero (b.c 63) for the purpose of adding to the penalties of the Ac ilia Calpurnia. (Dion Cass, xxxvii. 29; Cic pro A/vmm, c 23.) The penalty under this lex was ten years* exile. This law forbade any person to exhibit public shows for two years iK*furc he was a candidate. It also forbade candidates hiring persons to attend them and be about their persons. In the second consulfhip of M. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Pompeius Magnus (B.C.55) the I-cx Licinia was passed. This lex, which is entitled De Sodalitiis, did not alter the previous laws against bribery; but it was specially directed against a particular mode of canvassing, which consisted in employing agents (sodales) to mark out the members of the several trit>es into smaller portions, and to secure more effectually the votes by this division of labour. This distribution of the members of the tribes was called decuriutio. ( Plancio^ c. lit.) It was an obvious mode of better securing the votes ; and in the main is rightly explained by Rein, but completely misunderstood by Wunder and others. Dmmnnn {Oeschickte Homt, vol. iv. p, 93) confounds the do* cmriatio with the roitio or coalition of candidates to procure votes. The mode of appointing the judices in trials under the Lex Licinia was al»o provided by that lex. They were called Judices Editicii, because the accuser or prosecutor nominated four tribes, and the accused was at liberty to reject one of them. The judices were taken out of the other three tribes ; but the mode in which they were taken is not quite clear. The penalty under the Lex Licinia was exile, but for what period is uncertain. The Lex Pompeia (a c. 52), passed when Pompeius was sole consul for part of that year, appears to have been rather a measure passed for the occasion of the trials then had and contemplated than any thing else. It provided for the mode of naming the judices, and shortened the proceedings. When C. Julius Caesar obtained the supreme power in Rome, he used to recommend some of the candidates to the people, who, of course, followed his recommendation. As to the consulship, he managed the appointments to that office just as he pleased. (Suet. Caes. c. 41.) The Lex Julia de Ambitu was passed (b. c. 18) in the time of Augustus, and it excluded from office for five years (Dion Cass. liv. 16 ; Suet Oct. 34) those who were convicted of bribery. But as the penalty was milder than those under the former laws, we must conclude that they were repealed
73- 77
in whole or in part Another Lex Julia dc Ainbitu was passed (u. c. 8 ; Dion Cass. Iv. 5) apparently to amend the law of B. c. 18. Candidate* were required to deposit a sum of money before canvassing, which was forfeited if they were con\ictcd of bribery. If any violence was used by a candidate, he was liable to exile (aquae ct ignis intcrdictio).
The popular forms of election were observed during the time of Augustus. Under Tiberius they ceased. Tacitus (Annal. i. 15) observes: — u The comitia were transferred from the campus to the patres," the senate.
While the choice of candidates was thus partly in the hands of the senate, bribery and corruption still influenced the elections, though the name of ambitus was, strictly speaking, no longer applicable. But in a short time, the appointment to public offices was entirely in the power of the emperors ; and the magistrates of Home, as well as the populus, were merely the shadow of that which had once a substantial form. A Roman jurist, of the imperial period (Modestinus), in Bpeaking of the Julia Lex de Ambitu, observes, "This law is now obsolete in the city, because the creation of magistrates is the business of the princeps, and does not depend on the pleasure of the populus ; but if any one in a municipium should offend against this law in canvassing for a saccrdotium or magistrates, he is punished, according to a senatus consultura, with infamy, and subjected to a penalty of 100 aurei." (Dig. 48. tit 14.)
The laws that have been enumerated are probably all that were enacted, at least all of which any notice is preserved. Laws to repress bribery were made while the voting was open ; and they continued to be made after the vote by ballot was introduced at the popular elections by the Lex Gabinia (b.c. 139). Rein observes that "by this change the control over the voters was scarcely any longer possible ; and those who were bribed could not be distinguished from those who were not,, One argument in favour of ballot in modern times has been that it would prevent bribery ; and probably it would diminish the practice, though not put an end to it But the notion of Rein that the bare fact of the vote being secret would increase the difficulty of distinguishing the bribed from the unbribed is absurd ; for the bare knowledge of a man's vote is no part of the evidence of bribery. It is worth remark that there is no indication of any penalty being attached to the receiving of a bribe for a vote. The utmost that can be proved is, that the divisores or one of the class of persons who assisted in bribery were punished. (Cic. pro Plancio, c. 23, pro Afurcna, c. 23.) But this is quite consistent with the rest: the briber and his agents were punished, not the bribed. When, therefore, Rein, who refers to these two passages under the Lex Tullia, says : " Kven those who received money from the candidates, or at least those who distributed it in their names, were punished," he couples two things together that arc entirely of a different kind. The proposed Lex Aufidia (Cic. ad Att. i. l(i) went so far as to declare that if a candidate promised money to a tribe and did not pay it, he should be unpunished ; but if he did pay the money, he should further pay to each tribe (annually ?) 3000 sesterces as long as he lived. This absurd proposal was not carried ; but it shows clearly
enough that the principle was to punish the briber only.
The trials for ambitus were numerous in the time of the republic A list of them is given by Rein. The oration of Cicero in defence of il Murena, who was charged with ambitus, and that in defence of Cn. Piancius, who was tried under the Lex Licinia,are both extant (Rein, Criminalrecht der /Vomer, where all the authorities are collected ; Cic. Pro Ptancio, ed. Wunder.) [G. L.] AMBLO SKOS GRAPHE' (ftjiftUtresM ypcupif). [ A Bohtio.]
AMBRO'SIA (d/ufpoVia), festivals observed in Greece, in honour of Dionysus, which seem to have derived their name from the luxuries of the table, or from the indulgence of drinking. According to Tzetzes on Hesiod (Op. et D. v. 504) these festivals were solemnized in the month of Lenaeon, during the vintage. (Etym. M. s. v. A-qvcuwv^ p. 564. 7. ; G. E. W. Schneider, UeUr das Attisehe Theaterwcacn, p. 43 ; K. F. Hermann, Lehrb. d. gottesdienstl, AUerth. d. Grieehen, § 58. n. 7.) [L. S-]
AMBUBAIAE, female musicians from Syria, who gained their living by performing in public, at Rome, especially in the Circus. Their name is derived from the Syrian word abub or anouA, a flute. Their moral condition was that which females of their class generally fall into. The Bayaderes of India will perhaps give the best idea of what they were. (Hor. Sat. i. 2. 1, with Heindorf's Note ; Juvenal, iii. 62 ; Suet Ner, 27 i Priapeia, 2G ; Petron. lxxiv. 13.) [P.S.]
AMBU'RBIUM, or AMBURBIA'LE, a sacrifice which was performed at Rome for the purification of the city, in the same manner as the ambarvalia was intended for the purification of the country. The victims were carried through the whole town, and the sacrifice was usually performed when any danger was apprehended in consequence of the appearance of prodigies, or other circumstances. (Obseq. De Prodig. c. 43 ; ApuL Metamorph. iii. ab init p. 49, Bipont. ; Lucan. i. 593.) Scaliger supposed that the amhurbium and ambarvalia were the same ; but their difference is expressly asserted by Servius (ad Virg. Eel. iii. 77\ and Vopiscus (amburbium celebratum, ambarvalia promissa ; Aurel. c. 20).
AMENTUM. [hasta.]
AMICTO'RIUM, a linen covering for the breasts of women, probably the same as the strophium. [strophium.] (Martxiv. 149.) In later times it seems to have been used in the same sense as Araictus. (Cod. Theod. 8. tit 5. s. 48.) [Awic
AMICTUS, AMI'CULUM. The verb amicire is commonly opposed to induere, the former being applied to the putting on of the outer garment, the chlarays, pallium, laena, or toga (ifidrtov^ <papos) ; the latter, to the putting on of the inner garment, the tunica (x*T«y). In consequence of this distinction, the verbal nouns, amictus and induins^ even without any further denomination of the dress being added, indicate respectively the outer and the inner clothing. (See Tibull. i. 9. 13.; Corn. Nep. Ctmon, 4, Dal. 3. §2 ; Virg. Am. iii. 545, v. 421, compared with Apoll. Rhod. ii. 30.) Sometimes, however, though rarely, amicire and induere are each used in a more general way, so as to refer to any kind of clothing.
In Greek amicire is expressed by i<p4vw<r$at% kfupUvvvvQai, &pir4x**0**t &"SdAAe<r0£U, *«/>*• faAAcrfsu: and mdttrrr by iv&vwmar. ty*&TfKtt a^rex^f* exi£Am*a and <Ti$oAoior, T*pi£A*j^a and *-*oi6«Aaior, an outer garment, and froWo, an inner garment, a tunic, a ahirt. [J.Y.]
AM MA (6ftfta)i a Greek measure of length, eeuaJ to f rty St^x*4* (cubits), or sixty xaoVr (feet). It was osed in measuring land. (Hero, Oe Mensaris.) [P.S.J
AMXE*STIA (o^*Tftfr£a), is a word u*cd by the ial<-r Greek writers, and front them borrowed by the Romans, to describe the act or arr.ingrmciit by which otfences were yonjofnr*, or regarded as if they had not been committed, so that the offender could not be caJled to account for them. The word is chierly used with reference to the ont-nces committed., or alleged to have been commilieu, again«t the lavs, during those conflicts of oc»po&ii:£ factious which so often occurred in the Lireck republics, and in which the victorious party usually took u sanguinary vengeance upon :is opponents. So rare, indeed, were the exceptions to this course of vengeance, that tliere U •Kilv one case of amnesty in Greek history, which requires any particular notice. This was the amBfsty which terminated the struggle between the ■drttoeratical and oligarchical parties at Athens, siid completed the revolution by which the power of tile Thirty Tyrants was overthrown, B. c 403. It wa* arranged by the mediation of the Spartan king Pausanias, and extended to all the citizens w ho bad committed illegal acts during the recent troubles, with the exception of the Thirty and the Eleven, and the Ten who had ruled in Peiraeus ; and even they were only to lie excepted in case of their refusal to give an account of their government ; their children were included in the amne&ty, and were permitted to reside at Athens. An addition was made to the oath of the senators, binding them not to receive any avleuri* or apagoge on account of anything done before the amnesty, the strict observance of which waa also iinpoeed by an oath upon the dicastae. (Xen. lleiltn, ii. 4. fj 38—43 ; Andoc de Mytt. p. 44 ; Dem. a« BotaL p. 1018; Kepoa, TkrasybmL 3, who makes a confusion between the Ten Tyrants of Peiraeus and the Ten who succeeded the Thirty in the city; Taylor, Lyidae Vita; Wachsmuth, IltlUn. Alicrtk. voL i. pp. 6*46, 647, new edition ; Hermann, FoUt. A nttq. of Greece^ § 169.)
The form of the word is incorrectly given in seme modern works as afurr\<rr*iiL. But even the genuine form only belongs to later Greek ; being used only by Plutarch (tie. 42, Anton. 14), Herodian (iii. 4 * § 17, v. 4. § 18, viii. 12. § 6), Phiio, and still later writers. The better writers used £3«ux, and the verbal form is ov pyTjaiKaxuv. lie Epecting the supposed allusion to the word by Cicero, see Facciolati, s. r. [P. S.]
AMPHIARAIA (o^^Mooaia), games celebrated in aononr of the ancient hero Auiphiaraus, in the nei/hboorhood of Drop us, where he bad a temple with a celebrated oracle. (Schol. ad Pind. Ol. vii. 134 ; the rites observed in his temple are described by Pausanias (L 34. § 3. ; K. P. Hermann, Lekrh. d. gutt&diensti. Aliertk. d. Uri&htn^ § 63. aJ.W [L.S.] ASfPIJI'CTY OS ES ('AfMpucTuoMi), membera ofmAmpkictywia ( 'A^iKTvoriaor'AtupucTtovla). Institutions called Axnphictyonic appear to have exitted in Greece from time immemorial. Of their • and object history gives us only a general
j idea ; bat we nay safely believe them to have been i associations of origmally neighbouring tribes, funned for the regulation of mutual intercourse, and the protection of a common temple or sanctuary, at which the representatives of the different members met, to transact business and celebrate rrligi us riles and games. This identity of religion, coupled with near neighbourhood, ami that too in ages of remote antiquity, implies in all probability a certain degree of affinity, which might of itself pro| dace anions and confederacies amongst tribes so j situated, regarding each other as members of the same great family. They would thus preserve aniiDig theroirlve*, and transmit to their children, a spirit of nationality and brotherhood ; nor could any better means be devised than the bond of a common religious worship, to counteract tbe hostile interests which, sooner or later, spring ap in all large societies. Tbe causes and motives from » hich we might expect such instilaliona to arise, existed in every neighbourhood ; and accordingly we find many Ampiutymme of various degrees of importance, though our information respecting them is very deficient.
Thus we learn fr m Strubo, that there was one of some celebrity whose place of meeting was a sanctuary of Poseidon (Muller, Lturiam** ii. 10. | 5 * Strab. viii. p. 374) at Calauria, an ancient settlemeutofthelonianiin ibeSaronK Gul£ Tbeoriginal members were Epidaurus, Hermione, Nan pi us, Prasiae in Laconia, Aetrina, Athens, and the liorotian Grchomenus (Thirlwall, lint, of Grwcr, vol. i. p.375); wh<>se remoteness from each other make* it difficult to conceive what could have been the motives for farming the confederation, mora especially as religious causes seem precluded by the hu t. that Troexen, though so near to Calauria, and though Poseidon was its tutelary god, was not a member. In after times. Argot and Sparta took the place of Nauplia and Prasiae, and religious ceremonies were the sole object of the meetings of the association. There also seems to have been another in Argolis (Strab. Lc. ; Pausan. iv. 5) distinct from that of Calauria, the place of congress being the 'Hpoior, or temple of Hera. Dclos, too, was the centre of an Amphictyony — the religious metropolis, or 'Icrri'n r^ffwv of the neighbouring Cyclades, where deputies and embassies (btmpol) met to celebrate religious solemnities in honour of the Dorian Apollo, and apparently without any reference to political objects. (Muller, & & § 7 J Callim. Hymn. 3JA.)
The system indeed was by no meant confined to the mother country; for the federal unions of the Dorians, Ionians, and Aeolian A, living on the west coast of Asia Minor, seem to have been Amphictyonic in spirit, although modi tied by exigencies of situation. Their main essence consisted in keeping periodical festivals in honour of the acknowledged gods of their respective nations. Thus the Dorians held a federal festival, and celebrated religious games at Triopium, uniting with the worship of their national god Apollo that of tbe more ancient and Pelasgic Demeter. The Ionians met tor similar purposes in honour of the Heliconian Poseidon * at Mycale,—their place of assembly being called the Panionium, and their festival Pan ion ia. The twelve towns of the Acolians assembled at Grynea, in honour of Apollo. (Herod, i. 144, 14K,
* Poseidon wa* the god of the Ionians, as Apollo of the Dorians Muller, Dor. ii. 10. $. h. 149; Dionys. iv. 25.) That these confederacies were not merely for offensive and defensive purposes, may be inferred from their existence after the subjugation of these colonies by Croesus; and we know that Halicarnassus was excluded from the Dorian union, merely because one of its citizens had not made the usual offering to Apollo of the prize he bad won in the Triopic contests. A confederation somewhat similar, but more political than religious, existed in Lycia (Strab. xiv. p. 664): it was called the ** Lycian system," and was composed of twenty-three cities.
But besides these and others, there was one Amphictyony of greater celebrity than the rest, and much more lasting in its duration. This was by way of eminence called the Amphictyonic league ; and differed from the other associations in having two places of meeting, the sanctuaries of two divinities. These were the temple of Dcmeter, in the village of Anthela, near Thermopylae (Herod, vii. 200), where the deputies or representatives met in autumn ; and that of Apollo at Delphi, where they assembled in spring. The connection of this Amphictyony with the latter not only contributed to its dignity, but also to its permanence. With respect to its early history, Strabo (ix. p. 420) says, that even in his days it was impossible to learn its origin. We know, however, that it was originally composed of twelve tribes (not cities or states, it must be observed), each of which tribes contained various independent cities or states. We learn from Aeschines (De F. L. § 122, ed. Bekker), a most competent authority (b.c. 343), that eleven of these tribes were as follows:—The Thcssalians, Boeotians (not Thebans only), Dorians, Ionians, Perrhnebions, Maguetes, Locrians, Oetaeans or Ainianes, Phthiots or Achaeans of Phthia, Malians, or Meltons, and Phocians ; other lists (Paus. x. 8. § 2) leave us in doubt whether the remaining tribe were the Dolopes or Delphians; but as the Delphians could hardly be called a distinct tribe, their nobles appearing to have been Dorians, it seems probable that the Dolopes were originally members, and afterwards supplanted by the Delphians. (Titmann, pp. 39, 43.) The preponderance of the Thessalian and northern nations of Greece proves the antiquity of the institution, no less than eight of the twelve tribes being of the Pelasgic race: and the fact of the Dorians standing on an equality with such tribes as the Malians, shows that it must have existed before the Dorian conquest of the Peloponnesus which originated several states more powerful, and therefore more likely to have sent their respective deputies, than the tribes mentioned. The Thessalians indeed in all probability joined the league about twenty years before that event, when they settled in Thessaly, after quitting Thesprotia in Epcirus, and the date of thcoriginof the league itself has been fixed (Clinton, F. If. vol. i. p. 66) between the 60th and 80th years from the fall of Troy. That it existed moreover before the Ionian migration, may be inferred from the Ionians of Asia having a vot acquired without doubt when in the country, and from the statement of Tacitus (Annul, iv. 14) : " Samii dec re to Araphictyonum nitebantur, quis prcecipuum fuit rerura omnium judicium, qua tcmpestate Grseci, conditis per Asiani urbibus, ora maris potiebantur."
We learn from Aeschines (/. c), that each of the twelve Amphictyonic tribes had two votes in congress, and that deputies from such towns as
(Dorium and)* Cytinium had equal power with the Lacedaemonians, and that Eretria and Priene, Ionian colonics, were on a par with Athens (iVoSfrijff>oi Tois ' Adrivatois}. It seems therefore to follow, either that each Amphictyonic tribe had a cycle (Strnb. ix. p. 420 ; Pausan. x. 8. § 2), according to which its component states returned deputies, or that the vote of the tribe was determined by a majority of votes of the different states of that tribe. The latter supposition might explain the fact of there being a larger and smaller assembly — a &ov\4i and inKkritrla—at some of the congresses, and it is confirmed by the circumstance that there was an annual election of deputies at Athens, unless this city usurped functions not properly its own.
The council itself was called Pylaea (JlvXaua) from its meeting in the neighbourhood of Pylae (Thermopylae), but the same name was given to the session at Delphi as well as to that at Thermopylae. It was composed of two classes of representatives, one called Pylagorae (riuAxryopai), the other Hieromnemones ('Upopyhnovts). Of the former, three were annually elected at Athens to act with one Hieromncmon appointed by lot. (Aristoph. Xubes, v. 607.) That his office was highly honourable we may infer from the oath of the Heliasts (Dem. c. Timocr. § 170, ed. Bekker), in which he is mentioned with the nine archons. On one occasion we find that the president of the council was a Hieromnemon, and that he was chosen general of the Amphictyonic forces, to act against the Amphissians. (Titmann, p. 87.) Hence it has been conjectured that the Hieromnemones, also called UpoypafifjuxrtiSy were superior in rank to the pylagorae. (Titmann, pp. 84,86.) Aeschines also contrasts the two in such a way as to warrant the inference that the former office was the more permanent of the two. Thus he says (c. Ctes. § 115, ed. Bekker), " When Diognetus was Hieromnemon, ye chose me and two others Pylagorae.'" He then contrasts 44 the Hieromnemon of the Athenians with the Pylagorae for the time being." There is even good reason for supposing that the Hieromnemon was elected for life (Clinton, F. If. vol. iii. p. 621 ; Titmann, /. c), although some writers are of a different opinion. (Schumann, tie Comit. p. 392.) Again, we find inscriptions (Bockh, Inscr. 1171 >, containing surveys by the Hieromnemones, as if they formed an executive ; and that the council concluded their proceedings on one occasion (Aesch. c. Ctes. § 124), by resolving that there should be an extraordinary meeting previously to the next regular assembly, to which the Hieromnemones should come with a decree to suit the emergency, just as if they had been a standing committee. Their name implies a more immediate connection with the temple ; but whether they voted or not upon matters in general is doubtful: from the two Amphictyonic decrees quoted below, we might infer that they did not, while the inscriptions (1688 and 1699), quoted by Schomann (p. 392), and the statement of Demosthenes (pro Carom. § 277, ed. Bekker), lead to a contrary conclusion. The narrative of Aeschines (c. CVes, § 121) implies that they were more peculiarly the representatives of their constituent states. Probably the respective functions of the two classes
* There is a doubt about the reading.—See Tliuc. iii. 95 ; Titmann, p. 52.
ef representatives were not strictly defined, and varied at different timet, if indeed they are always correctly distinguished by the authors who allude to them. The l*rjEAv»o*ia, or general assembly, in
cmsaicmg the god, and as there was a large multasde annually collected at the Amnhictyonic session at Thermopylae, it was probably numerously attended. (Hesvchius. ad Sopk. Track, r. 639.) It was convened on extraordinary occasions by the chairman of the council (*0 ray Ttwsuxs iTBfreH{M,, A each. L <-.).
Of the duties of this latter body nothing will rrre us a dearer Tiew than the oaths taken and tse decrees made bv it. The oath was as fellows (Aesch. /*• F. L. § 121) : " They would destroy Bo city of the Amphietyons, nor cut off their stream-* in war or peace ; and if any should do so, they would march against him and destroy his dees ; and should any pillage the property of the god, or be privy to or plan any thing against what was in his temple at Delphi, they would take
and all their might-" There are two decrees given by Demosthenes, both commencing thus (Dem. dt Car. $ 197) : — " When Cleinagnra* was priest licsw4s), at the spring meeting, it was resolved by the pylagorae and the assessors of the Amphietyons, and the general body of them," Ac The resolution in the second case was, that as the Amphissiant continued to cultivate utAe nered district," Philip of Macedon should be requested to help Apollo and the Amphietyons, and that he was thereby constituted absolute general of the Amphietyons. He accepted the office, and soon reduced the offending city to subjection. From the oath and the decrees, we see that the main duty of the deputies was the preservation of the rights and dignity of the temple at Delphi. We know, too, that after it was burnt down (a. c 548), they contracted with the Alcmaeonidae for the rebuilding ( Herod. iL 180, v. 62); and Atbenaeua (b. C 160) informs us (ir. p. 173, b) that in other matters connected with the worship of the Delphian god they condescended to the regulation of the minutest trifle*. History, moreover, teaches that if the council produced any palpable effects, it was from their interest in Delphi ; and though it kept up a standing record of what ought to have been the international law of Greece, it sometimes acquiesced in, and at other times was a party to, the roost iniquitous and cruel acts. Of this the ease of Crissa is an instance. This town lay on the Gulf of Corinth, near Delphi, and was much frequented by pilgrims from the West The Crissaeans were charged by the Delphians with undue exactions from these strangers, and with other crimes. The council declared war against tbem. as guilty of a wrong against the god. The war lasted ten years, till, at the suggestion of Silon, the waters of the Pleistu* were turned off, then poisoned, and tamed again into the city. The besieged drank their fill, and Crissa was soon nwi to the ground ; and thus, if it were an Amphietyoror city, was a solemn oath doubly violated. Iti territory—the rich Crissaean or Cirrhaean plain — ni consecrated to the god, and curses imprecated Booo an/ one who should till or dwell in it Thus ended the First Sacred War (a c.586), in which the Athenians and Amphietyons were the ,nummentt of Delphian vengeance. (Pans. x. 37. § 4;
Clinton. F. If. vol. iL p. 196: Aeschin. r. Oet. fj 109.) The Second, or Phocian War (a. c. 356), was the most important in which the Ampbictrons were concerned (Thirlwall, HiM. A/*f/ranv, vol. v. p. '263 —372) ; and in this the Thebans availed themselves of the sanction of the
geance on their enemies, the Phocian*. To do this, however, it was necessary to rail in Philip of Macedon, who readily proclaimed himself the champion of Apollo, as it opened a pathway to hi* own ambition. The Phocians were subdued (a. c. 346), and the council decreed that all their cities, except Abae, should lie rased, and the inhabitants dispersed in villages not containing more than fifty inhabitants. Their two votes were given to Philip, who thereby gained a preteit for interfering with the affairs of Greece ; and also obtained the recognition of his subjects as Hellenes. To the causes of the Third Sacred War allusion has lieen made in the decrees quoted by Demosthenes. 7'he Amphissians tilled the devoted Cirrhaean plain, and behaved, as Strabo (ix. p. 419) snys worse than the Crissaeans of old (x'fpovr foor wspl robi llrovt*). Their submission to Philip was immediately followed by the battle of Chaeroneia (a. c 338), and the extinction of the independence of Greece. To the following year, a congress of the Amphictyonic states was held ; in which war was declared as if by united Greece against Persia, and Philip elected commander-in-chief. On this occasion the Amphietyons assumed the character of national representatives as of old, when they set a price upon the head of Kphialtet, for his treason to Greece at Thermopylae, and erected monuments in honour of the Greeks who fell there. Herodotus indeed (vii. 214, 228), speaking of them in reference to Kphialtes, calls them ol rmr 'EAAffsw rii/Aa-yopot.
We have sufficiently shown that the Amphietyons themselves did not observe the oaths they took ; and that they did not much alleviate the horrors of war, or enforce what they had swom to do, is proved by many instances. Thus, for instance, Mycenae was destroyed by Argos ( n. r. 4 6H), Thespiae and Plataeae by Thebes, and Thebes herself swept from the face of the earth by Alexander (ik fw'ffv/i rr)i'EAAdoot asrfpraVcHi, Aeschin. e.( trs. § 133). Indeed, we may infer from Thucydides (i. 112), that a few years before the Peloponnesian war, the council was a passive spectator of what he calls 4 Ispos sroAssiof, when the I<acedacmonians made an expedition to Delphi, and put the temple into the hands of the Delphians, the Athenians, after their departure, restoring it to the Phocians ; and yet the council is not mentioned as interfering. Itwill not be profitable to pursue its history further ; it need only be remarked, that Augustus wished his new city, Nicopolis (a. D. 31), to be enrolled among its members ; and that I'ausanias, in the second century of our era, mentions it as still existing/but deprived of all power and influence. In fact, even Demosthenes (fte Pare, p. 6.1), spoke of it as the shadow at Delphi (r) «V atXipoii evud). In the time of Pansanias, the number of Amphictyonic deputies was thirty.
There are. two points of some interest, which still remain to be considered ; and first, the etymology of the word Amphictyon. We are told (Harpocrat ». r.) that Theopwipus thought it derived from the name of Amphictyon, a prince of ■ Thessaly, and the supposed author of the institution. Others, as Anaximenes of I*ampsacus, connected it u
with the word Ap^ucrfopt j, or neighbours Very few, if any, modern scholars doubt that the latter view is correct; and that Amphictyon, with Hcllen, Dorus, Ion, Xuthus,Thessalus,Larissa the daughter of Pelasgus, and others, are not historical, but mythic personages—the representatives, or poetic personifications, of their alleged foundations, or offspring. As for Amphictyon (Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 373), it is too marvellous a coincidence that his name should be significant of the institution itself; and, as he was the son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, it is difficult to guess of whom his council consisted. (PhiloL Museum, vol. ii. p. 359.) Besides, though Herodotus (i. 56) and Thucydides (i. 3) had the opportunity, they yet make no mention of him. We may conclude therefore, that the word should be written amphictiony *, from ifi<piKTtoves, or those that dwelt around some particular locality.
The next question is one of greater difficulty; it is this: — Where did the association originate ? — were its meetings first held at Delphi, or at Thermopylae ? There seems a greater amount of evidence in favour of the latter. In proof of this, we may state the preponderance of Thessalian tribes from the neighbourhood of the Maliac bay, and the comparative insignificance of many of them ; the assigned birthplace and residence of the mythic Amphictyon, the names Pylagorae and Pyhiea. Besides, we know that Thessaly was the theatre and origin of many of the most important events of early Greek history: whereas, it was only in later times, and after the Dorian conquest of Peloponnesus, that Delphi became important enough for the meetings of such a body as the Amphictyonic ; nor if Delphi had been of old the only place of meeting, is it easy to account for what must have been a loss of its ancient dignity. But whatever was the cause, we have still the fact, that there were two places of congress ; to account for which, it has been supposed that there were originally two confederations, afterwards united by the growing power of Delphi, as connected with the Dorians, but still retaining the old places of meeting. We must, however, admit that it is a matter of mere conjecture whether this were the case or not, there being strong reasons in Bupport of the opinion that the Dorians, on migrating southwards, combined the worship of the Hellenic Apollo with that of the Pelasgian Demeter, as celebrated by the Amphictyons of Thessaly. Equally doubtful is the question respecting the influence of Acrisius, king of Argos (Schol. ad Jiurip. Orest. 1094 ; Callim. Epig. xli. ; Strab. ix. p. 420) ; and how far it is true that he first brought the confederacy into order, and determined other points connected with the institution. We may however remark that his alleged connection with it, is significant of a Pelasgic element in its conformation. (Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece, cc. x.*xliii. j Heeren, Polit. Hist, of Greece, c. 7 j St. Croix, />ps Anciens Gouvememens Federatifs ; Tittmann, Ueber den Bund der Ampkictyonen; Miiller, Dorians, book ii. 3. §.5 ; Phil. M*s. vol. i. p. 324 ; Hermann, Manual of the Polit. Antiq. of Greece, § 11—14 ; Wachsmuth, Hellenische Alterthumtkunde ; Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 31. trans!.) [R. W.]
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AMPHIDRO'MIA (o^iSp^ia), a family festival of the Athenians at which the newly born child was introduced into the family, and received its name. No particular day was fixed for this solemnity ; but it did not take place very soon after the birth of the child, for it was believed that most children died before the seventh day, and the solemnity was therefore generally deferred till after that period, that there might be at least some probability of the child remaining alive. According to Suidas, the festival was held on the fifth day, when the women who had lent their assistance at the birth washed their hands, but this purification preceded the real solemnity. The friends and relations of the parents were invited to the festival of the amphidromia, which was held in the evening, and they generally appeared with presents, among which are mentioned the cuttle-fish and the marine polyp. (Hesych. and Harpocr. s. v.) The house was decorated on the outside with olive branches when the child was a boy, or with garlands of wool when the child was a girl; and a repast was prepared, at which, if we may judge from a fragment of Ephippus in Athenaeus (ix. p. 370 ; comp. ii. p. 65), the guests must have been rather merry. The child was then carried round the fire by the nurse, and thus, as it were, presented to the gods of the house and to the family, and at the same time received its name, to which the guests were witnesses. (Isaeus, De Pyrrhi Haered. p. 34. s. 30. Bekker.) The carrying of the child round the hearth was the principal part of the solemnity, from which its name was derived. But the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Lysistr. 758) derives its name from the fact that the guests, whilst the name was given to the child, walked or danced around it. This festival is sometimes) called from the day on which it took place : if on the seventh day, it is called tSoofmi or iSoofias: if on the tenth day, Sckottj, &c. (Hesych. and Aristoph. Av. 923 ; K. F. Hermann, Lekrb. d. gottesdienstlichen alterth'umer d. Griecken, § 48. n-6.) [L.S.]
AMPHIO'RCIA or AMPHOMO'SIA (ifttptopxia or apQwfWO-la), the oath which was taken, both by the plaintiff and defendant, before the trial of a cause in the Athenian courts, that they would speak the truth. (Hesych. Suid.) According to Pollux (viii. 10), the ampkiorcia also included the oath which the judges took, that they would decide according to the laws ; or, in case there was no express law on the subject in dispute, that they would decide according to the principles of justice.
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