martes, 2 de noviembre de 2010

Mitología china


Mitología china

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
La mitología china es el conjunto de relatos fantásticos relativamente cohesionados de la cultura de la antigua China. Muchas de sus leyendas toman lugar durante el período de los tres augustos y cinco emperadores. Mucho de la mitología China es única, aunque comparte bastante con Japón y Corea debido a su influencia en la antigüedad.
La Mitología China se conoce gracias a textos que datan esencialmente de la dinastía Chan-Wo. Al no tener más de 2.000 años de antigüedad, estos escritos apenas pueden clasificarse como recientes. Además, fueron redactados por doctos que a veces reinterpretaron la mitología de acuerdo con sus concepciones filosóficas. De este modo, transformaron a los más importantes dioses en soberanos virtuosos que reinaban en tiempos antiguos. También asociaron a sus dioses con las cinco direcciones (es decir, los cuatro puntos cardinales y el centro) según una cosmología elaborada durante la Antigüedad temprana.
Se puede tener una idea de lo que era la mitología china "original" comparándola con los relatos de otros pueblos en el Extremo Oriente. Al extender esta comparación a toda Eurasia, se puede apreciar que una gran parte de esta mitología es de origen indoeuropeo. Posee pues semejanzas totalmente sorprendentes con las mitologías germana, griega o eslava. Eso se debe a la invasión de China por un pueblo indoeuropeo, los tocarios, hace más de 3000 años.

Contenido

[ocultar]

[editar] Mitos y leyendas

No existen libros dedicados a Mitología en la antigua China. Los mitos se encuentran recogidos en múltiples obras de Historia, Filosofía o Poesía, en forma de menciones a personajes mitológicos y los hechos o leyendas que se les atribuyen. También hay que considerar que esta multitud de obras, de distintas dinastías, pertenecen a diversas corrientes de pensamiento (Taoísmo, Confucianismo, Legismo y Moísmo, principalmente).[1]

[editar] La Creación

Artículo principal: Mito Chino de la Creación
Una característica única de la cultura china es la relativamente tardía aparición en la literatura de los mitos sobre la Creación, que lo hacen tras la fundación del confucionismo, el taoísmo y las religiones populares. Las historias tienen varias versiones, a veces contradictorias entre sí. Por ejemplo, la creación de los primeros seres es atribuida a Shangdi, Tian (el cielo), Nüwa, Pangu o el Emperador de Jade.
En todo el Extremo Oriente y Oceanía, existía un dualismo cosmológico oponiéndose dos principios, por una parte la luz, el sol y el fuego, por otra parte la oscuridad, la luna y el agua. Generalmente, un pájaro representaba al primer principio. En China, se trataba de un cuervo. El pájaro solar es uno de los temas privilegiados de la dinastía Shang, la primera dinastía china cuya existencia se certifica por medio de la arqueología. Una serpiente, como un animal acuático, representaba al segundo principio. La madre de Shun, uno de los soberanos míticos de China, pertenecía al clan de la serpiente, y su padre pertenecía al clan del pájaro. Por lo tanto, Shun era resultante de la unión de los dos principios. Este mito ilustra también el totemismo de la antigua sociedad china, según el cual cada clan tenía un animal antepasado, así como la exogamia, que exigía que los esposos fueran provenientes de clanes diferentes.
Xiè era el antepasado de Shang y su madre se llamaba Jiandi. Un día, fue a bañarse con sus sirvientes en el río de la colina oscura. Un pájaro negro (probablemente una golondrina o un cuervo) pasó llevando un huevo multicolor en su pico. Lo dejó caer. Jiandi lo tomó y lo puso en su boca, pero lo tragó por descuido. Tras esto, concibió a Xie. En este relato, se trata de una forma particular de la unión de los dos principios cósmicos, puesto que este mito hace intervenir por una parte al agua y a la oscuridad, y por otra parte un pájaro.
Shangdi (上帝), aparece en la literatura hacia el 700 a. C. o antes (la fecha depende de la datación del Shujing, el "Clásico de la Historia"). Shangdi parece tener los atributos de una persona, pero no se le identifica como creador hasta la dinastía Han.
La aparición de Tian (天), el Cielo, en la literatura presenta el mismo problema que Shangdi, dependiendo también de la fecha del Shujing. Las cualidades del Cielo y de Shangdi parecen unirse en la literatura posterior hasta ser adorados como una sola entidad (皇天上帝), por ejemplo en el Templo del Cielo de Pekín. La identificación de los límites entre uno y otro, todavía no ha sido resuelta.
Nüwa aparece en torno al año 350 a. C. Su compañero es Fuxi y a veces se los adora como los ancestros últimos de la humanidad.
Pangu aparece en la literatura no antes del año 200 de nuestra era. Fue el primer creador. Al comienzo sólo había un caos sin forma del que surgió un huevo de 18.000 años. Cuando las fuerzas yin y yang estaban equilibradas, Pangu salió del huevo y tomó la tarea de crear el mundo. Dividió el yin y el yang con su hacha. El yin, pesado, se hundió para formar la tierra, mientras que el Yang se elevó para formar los cielos. Pangu permaneció entre ambos elevando el cielo durante 18.000 años, tras los cuales descansó. De su respiración surgió el viento, de su voz el trueno, del ojo izquierdo el sol y del derecho la luna. Su cuerpo se transformó en las montañas, su sangre en los ríos, sus músculos en las tierra fértiles, el vello de su cara en las estrellas y la Vía Láctea. Su pelo dio origen a los bosques, sus huesos a los minerales de valor, la médula a los diamantes sagrados. Su sudor cayó en forma de lluvia y las pequeñas criaturas que poblaban su cuerpo (pulgas en algunas versiones), llevadas por el viento, se convirtieron en los seres humanos.
El Emperador de Jade ((玉皇), aparece en la literatura después del establecimiento del taoísmo. También se le representa como Yuanshi Tianzun (元始天尊) o como Huangtian Shangdi (皇天上帝).

[editar] El Sol

El sol residía sobre un árbol, llamado Fusang o Kongsang. Por la mañana, Se levantaba de este árbol para posarse y dormir sobre otro árbol situado al oeste. En la antigüedad, había diez soles. Un día, estos se levantaron al mismo tiempo, infligiendo a los hombres un calor intolerable. Yi derribó a nueve de ellos con sus flechas, por lo que no permaneció más que uno. Según la mayoría de los textos, el mismo Yao pidió al arquero Yi cortar los soles en vez de derribarlos, pero éste es el resultado del cruce de las mitologías chinas e indoeuropeas, ya que Yi es un héroe indoeuropeo. Este mito de los soles múltiples existe en otro pueblo del Extremo Oriente, en Siberia, e incluso en algunos relatos Amerindios, prueba de su antigüedad.

[editar] La Gran Inundación

La mitología china comparte con las tradiciones sumerias, griegas, mayas, judaicas y de otros orígenes el mito del Diluvio Universal o gran inundación. En este caso, Yu, el Grande, con la ayuda de Nüwa, construyó los canales que consiguieron controlar la inundación y que permitieron a la gente cultivar sus cosechas.

[editar] Deidades importantes

Guan Yin.

[editar] Criaturas míticas

[editar] Aves

  • Fenghuang. El fénix chino.
  • Ji Guang (吉光).
  • Jian (鶼). Tiene un solo ojo y una sola ala. Son dos y dependen una de la otra, por lo tanto son inseparables, representando al marido y mujer (鶼鶼).
  • Jingwei (精衛). Trata de llenar el océano con ramas y guijarros.
  • Shang-Yang. Un ave de lluvia.
  • El ave de nueve cabezas. Utilizada para asustar a los niños.
  • Su Shuang (鷫鵊). Descrita como pájaro del agua, como la grulla.
  • Peng (鵬). De tamaño gigante y un terrible poder de vuelo. También conocida como el Roc chino.
  • Qing Niao (青鳥). El mensajero de Xi Wangmu.
  • Zhù. Un mal presagio.

[editar] Dragones

  • Yinglong. Un poderoso sirviente de Huang Di.
  • Rey Dragón (龙王, lóngwáng).
  • Fucanglong. El dragón del tesoro.
  • Shenlong. El dragón de la lluvia.
  • Dilong. El dragón de la tierra.
  • Tianlong. El dragón celestial.
  • Li (Dragón sin cuernos). Un dragón menor de los mares. No tiene cuernos.
  • Jiao. Otro dragón sin cuernos. Vive en los pantanos. Es el menor de los dragones.

[editar] Otras criaturas

  • Baihu. Tigre blanco.
  • Ba She. Una serpiente que puede comer elefantes.
  • Qilin (Kirin en japonés). Animal quimérico con diversas variaciones. Originalmente era una jirafa.
  • Long Ma. El dragón-caballo, similar al Qilin.
  • Kui (夔). Un monstruo de una sola pierna.
  • Kun (鯤). Un gigantesco y monstruoso pez.
  • Iuduan. Puede detectar la verdad.
  • Yaoguai. Demonios.
  • Espíritu del zorro.
  • Nian, la bestia.
  • Cabeza de Buey y Cara de Caballo (牛頭馬面). Joven mensajero en los infiernos.
  • Pixiu (貔貅).
  • Rui Shi (瑞獅).
  • Sun Wukong
  • Tao Tie (饕餮). Una especie de gárgola, frecuentemente encontrada en antiguos recipientes de bronce, representando la avaricia. Se dice ser el quinto hijo del dragón y tiene tal apetito que incluso come su propia cabeza.
  • Xiao (魈). Espíritu o demonio de la montaña.
  • Chao, el cerdo.

[editar] Lugares míticos

  • Xuan Pu (玄圃). Tierra encantada en la Montaña Kunlun (崑崙).
  • Yao Chi (瑤池). Residencia de los inmortales donde vive Xi Wang Mu.
  • Fu Sang (扶桑). Una isla mítica, frecuentemente identificada con Japón.
  • Que Qiao (鵲橋). El puente formado por aves a través de la Vía Láctea.
  • Peng lai (蓬萊). El paraíso, una fabulosa isla encantada en el Mar de China.
  • Long Men (龍門). La puerta del dragón donde las carpas se pueden transformar en dragones.
  • Di Yu (地獄). El infierno chino.

[editar] Fuentes literarias de la mitología china

[editar] Véase también

[editar] Referencias

  1. García-Noblejas, 2007, 61

[editar] Bibliografía

[editar] Enlaces externos


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Chinese mythology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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"Nine Dragons" handscroll section, by Chen Rong, 1244 AD, Chinese Song Dynasty, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written tradition. These include creation myths and legends and myths concerning the founding of Chinese culture and the Chinese state. Like many mythologies, it has in the past been believed to be, at least in part, a factual recording of history.
Historians have conjectured that the Chinese mythology began in the 12th century B.C. The myths and legends were passed down in oral form for over a thousand years, before being written in books such as Shan Hai Jing. Other myths continued to be passed down through oral traditions like theater and song, before being recorded as novels such as * Hei'an Zhuan - Epic of Darkness Literally Epic of the Darkness. This collection of epic legends is preserved by a community of Chinese Han nationality, inhabitants of the Shennongjia mountain area in Hubei, and contains accounts from the birth of Pangu up to the historical era.
Imperial historical documents and philosophical canons such as Shangshu, Shiji, Liji, Lüshi Chunqiu, and others, all contain Chinese myths.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Major concepts

Some myths survive in theatrical or literary formats, as plays or novels. Important mythological fiction which is seen as definitive records of these myths include:
Nuwa and Fuxi represented as half-snake, half-human creatures.
  • Shangdi (上帝), appears in literature probably earlier than 700 BC as Huangtian Dadi 皇天大帝 very occasionally as 皇天上帝, (the dating of these occurrences depends on the date of Oracle Bones and the Shujing, aka "Book of Documents"). When Huangtian Dadi was used it refers to Jade Emperor or Yu Huang, and Tian 天 and Jade Emperor were synonymous in Chinese prayers.
  • Yu Di (玉皇 or 玉帝 or Jade Emperor), appears in literature after the establishment of Taoism in China, but the position of Yu Huang dates back to beyond the times of Huangdi, Nuwa or Fuxi.
  • Tian (天, or Heaven), appears in literature probably about 700 BC, or earlier (the dating of these occurrences depends on the date of the Shujing, aka "Book of Documents"). There are no "creation" oriented narratives for 'Heaven', although the role of a creator is a possible interpreatation. The qualities of 'Heaven' and Shangdi appear to merge in later literature (and are worshiped as one entity ("皇天上帝") in, for example, the Temple of Heaven in Beijing). The extent of the distinction (if any) between them is debated. The sinologist Herrlee Creel proposes that an analysis of the Shang oracle bones shows Shangdi preceded 'tian' as a deity, and that Zhou Dynasty authors replaced the term Shangdi with tian to cement the claim of their influence.
  • Nüwa (女媧), appears in literature no earlier than about 350 BC. Her companion was Fuxi (伏羲), the brother and husband of Nuwa. These two beings are sometimes worshiped as the ultimate ancestor of all humankind. They sometimes believe that Nuwa molded humans from clay for companionship. They are often represented as half-snake, half-human creatures. Nüwa was also responsible for repairing the sky after Gong Gong damaged the pillar supporting the heavens (see below).
  • Pangu (盤古), written about 200 AD by the Taoist author Xu Zheng, was a later myth claiming to describe the first sentient being & creator.

[edit] Time periods

[edit] Three August Ones and Five Emperors

During or following the age of Nuwa and Fuxi came the age of the Three August Ones and Five Emperors (三皇五帝). These legendary rulers ruled between c. 2850 BC to 2205 BC, before the Xia dynasty.
The list of names comprising the Three August Ones and Five Emperors vary widely among sources (see Three August Ones and Five Emperors for other versions). The most widely circulated and popular version is:
  • The Three August Ones (Huang):
    • Fuxi (伏羲) - The companion of Nuwa.
    • Shennong (神農) - Shennong, "Divine Farmer", reputedly taught the ancients agriculture and medicine.
    • Huang Di (黃帝) - Huang Di, "Huang Emperor"(normally "黄" means "yellow", but not here. See below for the full explanation of "皇帝"), is often regarded as the first sovereign of the Chinese nation.
(Source: Shangshu (尚書))
  • The Five Emperors (Di):
    • Shaohao (少昊) - Leader of the Dongyi "Eastern Barbarians". His pyramidal tomb is in present-day Shandong.[clarification needed]
    • Zhuanxu (顓頊) - Grandson of the Huang Emperor.
    • Emperor Ku (帝嚳) - Great grandson of the Huang Emperor; nephew of Zhuanxu.
    • Yao (堯) - The son of Ku. His elder brother succeeded Ku, but abdicated when he was found to be an ineffective ruler.
    • Shun (舜) - Yao, passing over his own son, made Shun his successor because of Shun's ability and morality.
These rulers are generally regarded as morally upright and benevolent rulers, examples to be emulated by latter day kings and emperors. When Qin Shi Huang united China in 221 BC, he felt that his achievements had surpassed those of all the rulers who had gone before him. He combined the ancient titles of Huang (皇) and Di (帝) to create a new title, Huangdi (皇帝), usually translated as Emperor.

[edit] Great Flood

Shun passed his place as leader of the Huaxia tribe to Yu the Great (禹). The Yellow River is prone to flooding, and erupted in a huge flood in the time of Yao. Yu's father, Gun, was put in charge of flood control by Yao, but failed to alleviate the problem after 9 years. He was executed by Shun, and Yu took his father's place, and led the people in building canals and levees. After thirteen years of toil, flooding problems were ameliorated under Yu's command. Shun enfeoffed Yu in the place of Xia, in present-day Wan County in Henan. Upon his death, Shun passed the leadership to Yu. The main source for the story of Yu and the Great Flood comes from The Counsels of Yu the Great in the Classic of History (尚書·大禹謨). Because of his achievement in resolving the Great Flood, Yu, alone among the mythological rulers, is usually called "Yu the Great" (大禹). Alternatively, he is called Emperor Yu (帝禹), like his predecessors.

[edit] Xia Dynasty

from the shang dynasty
Upon Yu's death, his position as leader was passed not to his deputy, but to his son Qi. Sources differ regarding the process by which Qi rose to this position. Most versions agree that, Yu designated his deputy, Gaotao (皋陶), to be his successor. When Gaotao died before him, Yu then selected Gaotao's son, Bo Yi (伯益) as successor. One version says that all the peoples who had submitted to Yu admired Qi more than Bo Yi, and Yu passed power to Qi instead. Another version holds that Bo Yi ceremoniously offered the position to Qi, who accepted, against convention, because he had the support of other leaders. Yet another version says that Qi killed Bo Yi and usurped his position as leader.
The version currently most accepted in China has Yu name Bo Yi as successor, because Bo Yi had achieved fame by teaching the People to drive animals with fire during the hunts. Bo Yi had the support of the People and Yu could not stand against it easily. But Yu gave Bo Yi title without power. Yu gave his own son all power to manage the country. After a few fruitless years, Bo Yi lost popularity, and Yu's son Qi became more popular. Then Yu named Qi as successor. Bo Yi, did not go willingly and challenged Qi for the leadership. A civil war ensued. Qi, with strong support from the People, defeated Bo Yi's forces, killed Bo Yi, and solidified his rule.
Qi's succession broke the previous convention of meritorious succession, and began what is traditionally regarded as the first dynasty of Chinese history. The dynasty is called "Xia" after Yu's centre of power.
The Xia Dynasty is semi-mythological. The Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals record the names of 17 kings of the Xia Dynasty. However, there is no conclusive archaeological evidence of its capital or its existence as a state of any significant size. Archaeological evidence for a significant urban civilization prior to the Shang Dynasty does not now exist.

[edit] Shang Dynasty

Jie, the last king of the Xia Dynasty, was supposedly a bloodthirsty despot. Tang of Shang, a tribal leader, revolted against Xia rule and eventually overthrew Jie, establishing the Shang Dynasty, based in Anyang. Book 5 of Mozi described the end of the Xia dynasty and the beginning of the Shang dynasty. During the reign of King Jie of Xia, there was a great climactic change. The paths of the sun and moon were different, the seasons were confused and the five grains dried up. Ghouls were crying in the country and cranes shrieked for ten nights. Heaven ordered Shang Tang to receive the heavenly commission from the Xia dynasty. The Xia dynasty has failed morally and Heaven has determined her end. Therefore, Shang Tang was commanded to destroy Xia with the promise of Heaven's help. In the dark, Heaven destroyed the fortress' pool. Shang Tang then gained victory easily.[1]
The Shang Dynasty ruled from ca. 1766 BC to ca. 1050 BC. It came to an end when the last despotic ruler, Zhou of Shang, was overthrown by the new Zhou Dynasty. The end of the Shang Dynasty and the establishment of the Zhou is the subject of the influential mythological fiction, Investitute of the Gods (封神演義). Book 5 of Mozi also described the shift. During the reign of Shang Zhou, Heaven could not endure his morality and his neglect of timely sacrifices. It rained mud for ten days and nights, the nine cauldrons (presumably used in either astronomy or to measure earth movements) shifted positions, pontianaks appeared and ghosts cried at night. There were women who became men, the heaven rained flesh and thorny brambles covered the national highways. A red bird brought a message "Heaven decrees King Wen of Zhou to punish Yin and possess its empire". The Yellow River formed charts and the earth brought forth mythical horses. When King Wu became king, three gods appeared to him in a dream, telling him that they have drowned Shang Zhou in wine and that King Wu was to attack him. On the way back from victory, the heavens gave him the emblem of a yellow bird.
Unlike the preceding Xia Dynasty, there is clear archaeological evidence of a government centre at Yinxu in Anyang, and of an urban civilization in the Shang Dynasty. However, the chronology of the first three dynasties remains an area of active research and controversy.

[edit] Creation and the Pantheon

The Jade Emperor is charged with running of the three realms: heaven, hell and that of the living. The Jade Emperor adjudicates and metes out rewards and remedies to actions of saints, the living and the deceased according to a merit system loosely called the Jade Principles Golden Script (玉律金篇, see external links). When judgments proposed were objected to, usually by other saints, the administration would occasionally resort to the counsels of the advisory elders.

[edit] Dragon

The Chinese dragon is one of the most important mythical creatures in Chinese mythology. The Chinese dragon is considered to be the most powerful and divine creature and is believed to be the controller of all waters. The dragon symbolised great power and was very supportive of heroes and gods. One of the most famous dragons in Chinese mythology is Yinglong "Responding Dragon", said to be the god of rain. Many people in different places pray to Yinglong in order to receive rain. In Chinese mythology, dragons are believed to be able to create clouds with their breath. Chinese people sometimes use the term "Descendants of the Dragon" as a sign of their ethnic identity.
For the most part, Chinese myths involve moral issues which inform people of their culture and values.
Dragon-gods, from Myths and Legends of China, 1922 by E. T. C. Werner

[edit] Religion and mythology

There has been extensive interaction between Chinese mythology and the major belief systems of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. (see Religion in China)
On the one hand, elements of pre-Han dynasty mythologies such as those in Shan Hai Jing were adapted into these belief systems as they developed (in the case of Taoism), or were assimilated into Chinese culture (in the case of Buddhism). On the other hand, elements from the teachings and beliefs of these systems became incorporated into Chinese mythology. For example, the Taoist belief of a spiritual paradise became incorporated into mythology, as the place where immortals and deities dwell.

[edit] Important mythologies and deities

Wen Chang, Chinese God of Literature, carved in ivory, c. 1550–1644, Ming Dynasty.
Spirit of the well, from Myths and Legends of China, 1922 by E. T. C. Werner
Zoomorphic guardian spirits of Day and Night, Han Dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) Chinese paintings on ceramic tile

[edit] Mythical creatures

  • Bashe (巴蛇 ba1she2) a snake reputed to swallow elephants
  • Birds:
    • Fenghuang (Chinese Phoenix)
    • Jian (鶼 jian1) A mythical bird supposed to have only one eye and one wing: 鶼鶼 a pair of such birds dependent on each other, inseparable, hence, represent husband and wife.
    • Jiguang (吉光 ji2guang1)
    • Jingwei (精衛) a mythical bird which tries to fill up the ocean with twigs and pebbles.
    • Jiufeng A nine headed bird used to scare children.
    • Peng (鵬, a mythical bird of giant size and awesome flying power) Also known as the Chinese roc.
    • Qing Niao (青鳥 qing1niao3) a mythical bird, the messenger of Xi Wangmu.
    • Sanzuniao (三足鳥) a three-legged crow. Represented the sun birds shot down by Houyi.
    • Shang-Yang (a rainbird)
    • Su Shuang (鷫鷞 su4shuang3) a mythical bird, also variously described as a water bird, like the crane.
    • Zhen (鴆) a poisonous bird
    • Zhu (a bad omen)
  • Chinese dragon
  • Chinese "Unicorns":
    • Qilin - a chimeric animal with several variations. The first giraffe sent as a gift to a Chinese emperor was believed to be the Qilin. An early Chinese painting depicts this giraffe replete with the fish scales of the Qilin. In legend, it is believed to have perfect good will, gentleness and benevolence to all living creatures.
    • Xiezhi (獬豸) - Also called Xie Cai, is a creature of justice said to be able to tell lies from truths. It has a single long straight horn that it uses to gorge liars. Often depicted as a goat unicorn.
    • Bai Ze (白澤) - literally meaning "white marsh", is a legendary creature said to have been encountered by the Yellow Emperor and to have given him a compendium listing all the demons in the world.
    • Xiniu (犀牛) - or the rhinoceros, started to become mythical creatures when they became extinct in China. Their depictions changed to a more bovine appearance with a single short curved horn on its head that was used to communicate with the sky.
  • The Four Symbols (四象)
  • The Four Fiends (四凶):
  • Longma (龍馬), the "dragon horse", similar to the Qilin.
  • Kui 夔, a one-legged mountain demon or dragon, also Shun's musical master who invented music and dance.
  • Kun, also known as Peng (鯤 kun1) a mythical giant monstrous fish.
  • Jiang Shi
  • Luduan can detect truth.
  • Yaoguai — demons.
  • Huli jing — fox spirits.
  • Nian, the beast
  • Ox heads & horse faces 牛頭馬面 devils in animal forms.[2]
  • Pixiu (貔貅)
  • Rui Shi (瑞獅)
  • Xiao (魈 xiao1) A mythical mountain spirit or demon.
  • The Xing Tian (刑天 "punished one" or "he who was punished by heaven") is a headless giant. He was decapitated by the Yellow Emperor as punishment for challenging him. Because he has no head, his face is in his torso. He wanders around fields and roads and is often depicted carrying a shield and an axe and doing a fierce war dance.
  • Chinese Monkey Warded off evil spirits and was highly respected and loved by all Chinese people.
  • Yifan Zhang - Cat goddess, led a legion of cats to uphold righteousness before the Shang Era. Descendant of Huang Di.
  • Zhayu (詐窳) - a creature of pure yin said to devour evil humans.
  • Iphot - a creature of light that brings light to the universe
There are also many other creatures.[3][4]

[edit] Mythical places

  • Xuanpu (玄圃 xuan2pu3), a mythical fairyland on Kunlun Mountain (崑崙).
  • Yaochi (瑤池 yao2chi2), abode of immortals where Xi Wang Mu lives.
  • Fusang (扶桑 fu2sang1), a mythical island, interpreted as Japan.
  • Queqiao (鵲橋 que4qiao2) the bridge formed by birds across the Milky Way.
  • Penglai (蓬萊 peng2lai2) the paradise, a fabled Fairy Isle on the China Sea.
  • Longmen (龍門 long2men2) the dragon gate where a carp can transform into a dragon.
  • Di Yu (地獄 di4yu4), Chinese term for hell.

[edit] Literary sources of Chinese mythology

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ http://ctext.org/mozi/condemnation-of-offensive-war-iii
  2. ^ Wenlin Software for Learning Chinese, Version 3.4, Wenlin Institute http://www.wenlin.com
  3. ^ 中国古代异物大汇总
  4. ^ 中國最全的古代異物、怪物簡介

[edit] External links


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Category: Greek Mythology


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Greek Mythology stub | Ab - Al | Ale - Ant | Ant - Az | B | C | D | E | F - G | H | I | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q - R | R | S | T | A - K | L - Z
Category:Greek deity stubs (593)EA2 | A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | K | L | M | N | O | P | S | T | U | Z




Mitología Romana


Category:Aeneid (662)EA2 | Category:Characters in the Aeneid (670)EA2 | Category:Characters in Book VI of the Aeneid (718)EA2 | Category:Kings of Rome (769)EA2 | Category:Latin kings (772)EA2 | Category:Deities in the Aeneid (803)EA2


Otras Ramas de Mitología

Mitología en General 1 | Mitología en General 2 | Category:Festivals in Ancient Greece (2865)JC | Category:Indo-European mythology | Category:Festivals in Ancient Greece (1483)JC | Category:Ancient Olympic Games (1484)JC | Category:Ancient Olympic Games (2876)JC | Category:Ancient Olympic competitors (2889)JC | Category:Ancient Olympic competitors (1485)JC | Category:Ancient Olympic competitors (2910)JC | Category:Ancient Greek athletes (2938)JC | Category:Ancient Greek athletes (1486)JC | Mitología General (3033)SC | 101SC | 3132SC | 3048SC | 3060SC | 3118SC | 3095SC | 876SC | 938SC | 986SC | 1289SC | 1109SC | 1407SC | 1107SC | 2494JC | 2495JC | 2876JC | 2865JC | 2889JC | 2938JC | 2596JC | 2606JC | 2621JC | 2450JC | 1476JC | 1477JC | 2825JC | 2740JC | 2694JC | 2806JC | 2738JC | 2660JC | 2808JC | 2734JC | 2703JC | 2910JC | 3051SK

Religión Católica


Religión Católica  |  PAPAS - POPES  |  Diccionario Bíblico - VINE

Via Crucis desde Roma - 10/04/2009 (Completo) (www.populartv.net Oficiado por su Santidad el Papa Benedicto XVI).
Papa Juan Pablo II (Karol Wojtyla). (Rosarium Mysteria Gloriosa | Rosarium Mysteria Doloris | Rosarium Mysteria Gaudii)


  1. CATHOLIC RELIGION  (2020)SK
  2. Category:Roman Catholicism (3219)SK
  3. Catolicismo (3220)SK
  4. Pope o Papas (3243)SK
  5. 3. Handel: Brockes Passion, HWV 48 / Marcus Creed (OedipusColoneus) (3243)SK
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QkBV6tEmYx8
    4. Handel: Brockes Passion, HWV 48 / Marcus Creed (OedipusColoneus) (3243)SK
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xM3Y5CxvKcg
  6. Category:Popes (3221)SK
  7. Listado de Papas desde Pedro hasta el presente (738)EA2
  8. Catholics

jueves 11 de marzo de 2010

ENCICLOPEDIA - INDICE | DEVOTOS FACEBOOK | EGIPTO - USUARIOS de FLICKR y PICASAWEB

Otros Apartados


Main     SWAMIS · Mejoras · Catholics

Nota: JC: http://juancastaneira.multiply.com | SC: http://sricaitanyadas.multiply.com | SK: http://srikrishnadas.multiply.com | EA: http://elagua.multiply.com | EA2: http://elagua2.multiply.com | CA: http://casaindiasricaitanyamahaprabhu.blog.com

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